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Dr. Jason Yu
Asian Studies Minor Coordinator
Associate Professor, Department of Mass Communications
Office Phone: (618)650-2219
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Edwardsville, IL 62026-1451


This is an Arabic language Ottoman-era manuscript illustrating the principle of the “Circle of Equity”, a theory of political justice that operated in the medieval Muslim world.

It reads: “The world is a garden the fence of which is the dynasty. The dynasty is an authority through which life is given to proper behavior. Proper behavior is a policy directed by the ruler. The ruler is an institution supported by the soldiers. The soldiers are helpers who are maintained by money. Money is sustenance brought together by subjects. The subjects are servants who are protected by justice. Justice is something familiar, and through it the world persists. The world is a garden..."


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