ESCI111: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY & PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUIZ 1
1. Physical geology is the science of the earth focusing on:
chronology of geologic events
2. The earth's moon and the planet mercury are described as primitive bodies because:
basic surface features have remained unchanged shortly after their
A. Oxygen B. Helium C. Nitrogen D. Hydrogen
4. Internal layers of the earth based on composition consist of:
Asthenosphere, core, crust, mesosphere
Continental slopes B. Continental rise C. Abyssal
Troposphere B. Mesosphere
C. Ionosphere D.
7. The zone of soft plastic rock beneath the lithosphere is called the:
Magnetosphere B. Thermosphere C. Mantle D. Outer core
information derived from deep oil wells
Evaporation, precipitation, condensation, runoff
10. The term "maria"
is currently used to describe which of the following features on the
craters B. Lava plains C. Luna volcanoes D. Dry river
12. Most of the earth's continental landscape was formed by
processes B. Stream erosion C. Volcanism D. Wind erosion
13. Which of the following is Not true about the asthenosphere?
A. It is
close to its melting point
A. About the
same as that of the crust
15. The lithosphere is:
outermost solid layer of the earth
trade winds B. Southeast trade winds
17. Continental shields are composed of:
rocks associated with mid-oceanic ridge
18. A stable platform is a region characterized by
vertical crustal movement until recent times
19. Which of the following statements concerning the oceanic ridge is NOT true?
A. It has a
series of parallel folds like the Appalachian Mountains
20. The deepest portion of the ocean basin is in the Mariana Trench with a depth of about:
A. -2.32 km B. -8.84 km C. -11.03 km D. -840 m
21. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
diameter of the earth is longer than the polar diameter by about 27 miles
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUIZ 2
1. The three most abundant elements in the earth crust by
percentage weight are:
2. Which of the following is a silicate complex ion?
4. According to Moh's
hardness scale, which of the following minerals is the softest?
5. The sum of protons
and neutrons present in an atom is called
6. Which of the
following compounds exhibits covalent bonding?
7. Which of the following features develop where plates converge
and one descends
8. At a convergent boundary, tectonic plates
9. Which of the following represents the earliest stages of
10. The movement of lithospheric plates is believed to be driven
11. Which of the following was not used as evidence to support
12. Which of the following plates is composed entirely of oceanic
13. Which of the following pairs of minerals are polymorphs of FeS2?
14. Which of the following statements is not correct?
15. Crystallization of a mineral from a solution
16. Which of the following common minerals is NOT a silicate
17. Which of the following statements about silicates is NOT TRUE?
18. Black mica is:
19. Carbon with atomic mass number of 13 has:
20. Which of the following is not a correct statement about
22. In addition to continental Africa, the Africa plate includes
23. The strips of high-intensity magnetism represent zones where
24. Ionic substitution is
25. Which of the
following is an example of a single chain silicate mineral?
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUIZ#3
1. Which list shows magmas in order of INCREASING viscosity?
A. rhyolite, andesite, basalt
B. andesite, basalt, rhyolite
C. basalt, rhyolite, andesite
D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite
E. rhyolite, basalt, andesite
2. A rock with an aphanitic texture indicates the parent magma
A. was generated at a divergent plate margin.
B. cooled slowly.
C. cooled rapidly.
D. experienced two periods of cooling, first slow and then fast.
E. formed at convergent plate margins.
3. An igneous rock consisting of broken fragments of crystals, shards of quenched magma, and rock fragments has a
A. pyroclastic texture. B. phaneritic texture. C. glassy texture.
D. phanitic texture. E. porphyritic texture.
4. Andesite volcanoes occur most frequently
A. along continental margins.
B. on stable platforms.
C. in linear chains of volcanic islands like Hawaii.
D. along continental rift zones.
E. along mid-oceanic ridges.
5. Which of the following is NOT an igneous intrusion?
A. laccolith B. dike C. sill D. stock
E. pressure ridge
6. The surface of a lava flow, characterized by a jumbled mass of angular blocks, is referred to as:
A. splatter joints. B. laccolith. C. pahoehoe.
D. pressure ridges. E. aa.
7. Silicic magma typically produces
A. spatter cones. B. composite volcanoes.
C. cinder cones. D. shield volcanoes.
E. fissure eruptions.
8. The cooling of basalt often produces vertical fractures due to shrinkage, and results in hexagonal prisms of rock. These fractures are called
A. fissures. B. faults. C. pahoehoes.
D. pressure ridges. E. columnar joints.
9. A narrow, tabular body of intrusive rock that cuts across the structures of the surrounding rock is termed a
A. stock. B. sill. C. dike. D. laccolith.
10. Volcanic glass is produced by
A. slow cooling.
B. rapid cooling.
C. any two different rates of cooling.
D. rapid cooling followed by slow cooling.
E. slow cooling followed by rapid cooling.
11. The rate of crystallization of an igneous rock will greatly influence its
A. color. B. grain size. C. density.
D. chemical composition. E. all of the above
12. The texture of this igneous rock suggests that
A. it cooled rapidly.
B. it cooled in two different stages.
C. it cooled slowly at a uniform rate.
D. recrystallized in the solid state.
E. formed from a pyroclastic flow.
13. Sedimentary rocks
A. form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment.
B. are widespread on the continents and ocean floor.
C. are common on the stable platforms of all continents.
D. may be found in folded layers in mountain belts.
E. all of the above
14. The mineral calcite (CaCO3) is the major constituent of
A. limestone. B. dolomite. C. shale. D. coal.
15. Which of the following is the most abundant nonclastic rock (deposited by chemical or organic means)?
A. marine limestone B. rock salt C. dolostone
D. gypsum E. dripstone
16. Which of the following rocks is NON-CLASTIC Sedimentary rock?
A. rock salt B. conglomerate C. siltstone
D. sandstone E. shale
17. The rock most unrelated to the others is
A. sandstone. B. conglomerate. C. mudstone.
D. limestone. E. shale.
18. Transportation and deposition of sediment by turbidity currents is commonly indicated by
A. mud cracks. B. cross-bedding. C. graded bedding.
D ripple marks. E. horizontal laminae.
19. Cross-bedding is commonly found in
A. coal. B. shale. C. sandstone.
D. rock gypsum. E. rock salt.
20. Which of the following would NOT be expected in sedimentary rocks?
A. fossils B. vesicles C. ripple marks
D. mud cracks
21. The material from which chemically-precipitated sedimentary rocks are made is transported to the place of deposition
A. by wind. B. as silt. C. as sediment particles.
D. as clastic particles. E. in solution.
22. The shoreline sedimentary environment includes all but
A. deltas. B. beaches. C. flood plains.
D. barrier islands. E. lagoons.
23. Well-sorted, fine-grained sand deposited in cross-bedded units several tens of feet thick would likely represent which of the following environments?
A. deep marine B. eolian C. fluvial
D. shallow marine E. beach
24. Fossil remains of ancient organisms are most commonly found in
A. basalt. B. granite. C. metamorphic rocks.
D. gypsum. E. sedimentary rocks.
Which of the following is not the result of vent eruption?
26. Lithification process involving the transformation of organic materials into
solid carbon called coal is known as:
Which of the following particles in sedimentary rocks is smallest in size?
28. Fine dark-colored layers in valves are often deposited in
A. Spring B. Summer C. Winter D. Fall
29. Which of the following is not sedimentary rock?
A. rock gypsum B. limestone
30. Which is the most universal feature of sedimentary rock?
31. Which is the most common clastic sedimentary rock?
32. Which igneous rock texture indicate two stages (or rates) of magma cooling?
33. What are batholiths?
34. What is common to granite, rhyolite and obsidian?
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUIZ 4
1. Marble is metamorphosed from which of the following rocks?
Shale B. Quartz sandstone C.
2. Formation of metamorphic rock NEVER
involves which of the following?
3. Which of the following is NOT the result of metamorphism?
A. growth of new materials
B. development of alignment of minerals within the rock body
C. re-crystallization of minerals
D. deep weathering of feldspar-rich rocks
E. conglomerate pebbles deformed into long elliptical shapes
4. Which of the following is NOT foliated metamorphic rock?
A. gneiss B. schist C. slate D. marble
5. Which of the following metamorphic rocks
represents the highest intensity of
A. slate B. quartzite C. schist D. gneiss E. marble
6. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about metamorphic rocks?
A. The original rocks have been intensely altered.
B. Grains commonly have a preferred orientation.
C. They constitute a large part of the continental crust.
D. They are commonly strongly stratified.
7. Which of the following metamorphic rocks is formed under very low pressure and low temperature?
A. Zeolite B. Blueschist C. Greenschist
D. Granulite E. Sanidinite
8. Which of the following metamorphic rocks is most likely to be formed at the oceanic trench where an oceanic crust is being subducted underneath another plate
A. Greenscist facies B. Granulite facies
C. Eclogite facies D. Blueschist facies
9. Which of the following rocks does not belong to the group?
A. Gneiss B. Granite C. Slate D. Marble
10. The parallel re-alignment of rod-like minerals during metamorphism is:
A. slaty cleavage B. schistocity
11. Which of the following pairs of parent rock and its metamorphosed equivalent is NOT correctly matched?
A. sandstone - quartzite B. shale - slate
C. limestone - schist D. granite - gneiss
E. conglomerate - metaconglomerate
12. The texture exhibited by slate, schist, and gneiss is called
B. stratification. C. cleavage
A. occurs during the deep burial of rock bodies
B. occurs around igneous intrusion
C. develops from strong directed horizontal stresses
D. commonly produces foliation that is not parallel with the original bedding
of the rock being metamorphosed
E. all of the above
A. chemical action of fluids
B. increases in pressure
C. increases in temperature
D. all of the above
15. Which of these rocks is not a metamorphic rock?
A. slate B. marble C. sandstone
D. quartzite E. gneiss
Increased pressure on rocks during metamorphism may result in:
E. All of the above
17. The parallel arrangement of large platy minerals is best described as
A. slaty cleaveage B. schistosity C. gneissic layering
D. metasomatism E. migmatite
18. Which of the following index minerals indicates lowest grade metamorphism?
A. chlorite B. biotite C. garnet
D. staurolite E. sillimanite
19. The only metamorphic rock in this list is:
A. sandstone B. basalt C. slate
D. shale E. rhyolite
20. Exposures of metamorphic rocks are most widespread in:
B. shields C. oceanic