Research Activities




Courses Taught












Recommended Textbook:   
Bergman, E.F. and Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, Places and Environment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 4th Edition


This course introduces new students to the subject matter of the field of geography, How earth's physical systems, culture, and human-environmental interactions help us to understand its spatial organization will be carefully described and explained.


In this course students should have an understanding of the following:

  • What geography is and its growing career opportunities
  • How geographic patterns are described using attributes of distribution and movement
  • How human-environmental interactions create and change the cultural landscapes over time and space
  • How maps and GIS are used as tools for storing, mapping and analyzing geographic data



1 Introduction to Geography:                                   
- What is Geography?
- Contemporary Approaches in geography
- Tools of Describing the Earth
ch. 1, 1-41
2 Weather and Climate                
- Weather Elements
- Circulation Patterns
- Climate and Climate Changes
ch. 2, 42-93
3 Landforms of the World
- Major Landform Types
- What is plate Tectonics?
- Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
ch. 3, 94-129   
4 The Biosphere                                                    
- Biogeochemical Cycles
- Soils
- What is an Ecosystem?
- Functions of Ecosystems
- Biomes: Global Patterns
ch. 4, 130-163
5 Population, Population Growth & Migration        
- Distribution and density
- World Population growth
- Demographic and Migration Patterns
- Population Issues
ch. 5, 164-213
6 Cultural Geography                                              
- Cultural Evolution and Diffusion
- Cultural realms
- Global Diffusion of European Culture
ch. 6, 214-259
7 The Geography of languages and Religion              
- Languages and Language Regions
- Development and Diffusion of Languages
- Linguistic Differentiation
- Origin and Diffusion of Major Religions
- Political and Social Impacts of Religion
ch. 7, 260-311
8 Human Food Supplies                                          
- Food Supplies in the Last 200 Years
- Status of World Agriculture
- Livestock Around the World
- Future Food Supplies
- Production and Distribution of Food Supplies
ch. 8, 312-351
9 Earth Resources and Environmental Protection       
- What is a Natural Resource?
- Mineral and Energy Resources
- Air and water Resources
ch. 9, 352-391
10 Cities and Urbanization
- Urban Functions
- The Location of Cities
- World Urbanization
- The Internal Geography of Cities
- Cities and Suburbs in the United States
- Urban Problems and Issues
ch. 10, 392-437

(Power Point Presentations):
Click on the link for the topic you like to view the slide show

Assignment One
Assignment Two


Topic 1: Introduction to Geography 

Topic 2:  Weather and climate 

Topic 3:  Landforms of the World

Topic 4:  The Biosphere

Topic 5:  Population, Population Growth & Migration

Topic 6:  Cultural Geography

Topic 7:  The Geography of Languages and Religion  

Topic 8:  Human Food Supplies

Topic 9:  Earth's resources and Environmental Protection

Topic 10: Cities and Urbanization




1.         According to the concept of environmental determinism:
            A.    the physical environment causes social behavior and development
            B.    the physical environment sets limitation 
            C.    people can adjust to the physical environment
            D.    people can choose a course of action from many alternatives offered by the physical
2.         Santa Fe, New Mexico, is in the Mountain Standard Time Zone, while Tampa, Florida, in
            the Eastern Standard Time Zone. If it is 1 A.M., Monday, in Tampa, what time is it in  
            Santa Fe?
            A.    3 A.M. Sunday
            B.    11 A.M. Sunday
            C.    3 A.M. Monday
            D.    11 P.M. Monday
3.         The International Date Line is measured approximately from
            A.    0 degree latitude
            B.    0 degrees longitude
            C.    90 degrees latitude
            D.    180 degrees longitude
4.         1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
            A.    bar scale
            B.    fractional scale
            C.    graphical scale
            D.    word or statement scale
5.         The population of the U.S. is approximately 250 million, and the land area is
            approximately 10 million square kilometers. The arithmetic density of the U.S. population
            is approximately:
            A.    25 square kilometers per person
            B.    25 persons per square kilometer
            C.    0.04 square kilometer per person
            D.    0.04 persons per square kilometer
6.         A culture hearth is:
            A.    a region from which innovative ideas originate
            B.    the material traits of a particular culture
            C.    a region in which people of different origins live
            D.    the evolution of a landscape
7.         The science of map making is:
            A.    demography
            B.    cartography
            C.    topography
            D.    geomorphology
8.         Which map would have the smallest scale?
            A.    world map
            B.    map of a continent 
            C.    a state map
            D.    a city map
9.         The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other
            long-distance methods is:
            A.    G.I.S.        B.    cartography            C.    projection               D.    remote sensing
10.        The geographic grid line opposite the Prime Meridian is the______.
            A.    Tropic of Cancer                 B.    90º meridian           C    180º meridian
            D.    320º meridian                     E.    Tropic of Capricon
11.        The highest numerical measurement when calculating latitude is _____.
            A.    90º             B.    100º                      C.    180º         
            D.    360º            E.    450º
12.        An ecosystem is a(n) _____ that functions as a community.
            A.    plant group             B.    association of plants and animals     C.    oceanic biota 
            D.    animal group          E.    rock type
13.        A large scale map represents a small portion of surface area at a high level of detail.
            Which fractional unit is not considered to be of large scale?
            A.    1/10                       B.    1/1,000      C.    1/10,000    D.    1/10,000,000
14.        A map that accurately portrays land shape is called a ________.
            A.    conformal projection            B.    equidistant projection
            C.    equal area projection           D.    azimuthal projection
15.        The amount of solar energy received at a particular place on Earth depends on:
            A.    the angle of the sun
            B.    the season of the year
            C.    the length of day
            D.    all of the above answers
16.        At which angle (of incidence) will the intensity of solar energy striking Earth be greatest?
            A.    90º        B.    60º                        C.    30º                        D.    0º             
17.        On a daily basis, the sun is most intense at:
            A.    6:00 AM                 B.    12 Noon     C.    3:00 PM     D.    6:00 PM
18.        In the Northern Hemisphere, the sun is lowest in the sky with less radiation in the:
            A.    winter                    B.    spring        C.    summer     D.    fall
19.        During the vernal equinox, which location receives the greatest amount of insolation?
            A.    poles                     B.    Tropic of Cancer     C.    Tropic of Capricon
            D.    Equator
20.        Rain shadows in mountainous areas are a result of:
            A.    convection              B.    orographic uplift      C.    frontal uplift
            D.    all of the above
21.        Continental polar air masses (e.g Canadian Air Mass) tend to be:
            A.    cool and wet           B.    cool and dry           C.    warm and dry
            D.    warm and wet
22.        In the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Coriolis effect deflects air in the Southern
            Hemisphere, creating
            A.    Southeast winds
            B.    Northeast winds
            C.    Northwest winds
            D.    Southwest winds
23.        Most of the world's deserts occur in what zone?
            A.    Intertropical Convergence Zone
            B.    Subtropical High Pressure Zones
            C.    Mid-latitude (Subpolar) Low Pressure Zones
            D.    Polar High Pressure Zones
24.        Boreal forest climates are associated with
            A.    subarctic climates
            B.    Mediterranean climates
            C.    Tundras
            D.    Savanna climates
25.        Which area of the Earth receives the least precipitation?
            A.    polar regions
            B.    desert regions

            C.    mid-latitudes
            D.    semi-arid


1.         Small organisms that digest and recycle dead plants and animals are:

            A.    Producers     B.     Consumers     C.     Decomposers    D.    Herbivores     
            E.     Omnivores

2.          Which of the following will be considered a primary producer in a typical food chain?

            A.    Carnivores     B.     Herbivores     C.     Plant    D.    Bacteria
            E.     Mushroom

3.         Terrestrial biomes reflect two especially visible features:

            A.    Soil and vegetation
            B.    Climate and vegetation type
            C.    Terrain and climate type
            D.    None of the above

4.         If soil is bare or compact.

            A.    More water is stored than normal
            B.    Runoff decreases
            C.    Infiltration is poor
            D.    Runoff increases
            E.    Both C and D

5.         Which of the following is not a macro-nutrient?

            A.    Nitrogen     B.     Calcium     C.     Molybdenum    D.    Potassium 
            E.     Sulphur

6.        In the following food chain:
           Oak tree<-----Grasshopper<------frog<---------snake,
           the trophy level occupied by frog is that of a:

            A.    Primary producer                B.         Primary consumer
            C.    Tertiary consumer               D.         Secondary producer
            E.    Secondary consumer

7.        The concentration of non-biodegradable pollutants like DDT in animal tissues tend to
            increase progressively from a lower trophic level to a higher trophic level in a process
            known as:

A.    Net primary productivity         B.     Biomass accumulation
C.    Biomagnification                     D.    Community succession
E.    Biogeochemical cycle

8.         A transition zone between adjoining biomes is called:

            A.    Biomass         B.     Ecotone         C.     Competition zone
            D.    Biodiversity     E. Selva

9.        California chaparral woodlands

            A.    have no known ecological equivalent any where else in the world
            B.    are heavily shaded by large trees with deep root systems
            C.    developed over time to accommodate frequent fires
            D.    All of the above

10.        The place where Earth's crust actually moves is the _____ of an earthquake.

            A.    Focus     B. Fault crust     C. Epicenter     D.     Wave front

11.       The Appalachians, the European Alps, and the Himalayas are examples of mountain
            ranges formed by

            A.    Normal faults                                         B.     Divergent plate boundaries
            C.    Faulting and folding                            D. Volcanic eruptions

12.        The combined length of all the stream channels in a basin, divided by the area of the
            drainage basin is the

            A.    Drainage density             B.     Slope                 C.     Discharge
            D.    Stream frequency               E.     Isostatic adjustment

13.        Soil creep is

            A.    the most common form of mass movement
            B.    the very slow, gradual movement of material down slope of a hill
            C.    more dangerous and dramatic when it occurs on steep slopes and in wet conditions
            D.    All of the above

14.       What kind of rocks have been exposed to great heat and/or pressure and/or chemically   
            active fluid, thereby altering them into more compact, crystalline rock?
            A.   sedimentary rocks        B.   metamorphic rocks     C.  igneous rocks
            C.   shale                           D.    granite                         E.  sandstone

15.       A ridge of materials dumped at the end of a glacier is:
            A.   lateral moraine         B.   terminal moraine        C. outwash plain
            D.   cirque                      D.  Eskers                          E. all of the above

16.      Which of the following landform features are related to alpine glaciation?
            A.   cirques                   B.   horn           C. arêtes             D. hanging valleys
            E.   all of the above

17.    The study of landforms and the processes that create and modify  
         them is:
         A.   demography       B.   cartography      C.   petrology      D. seismology 
         E.  geomorphology

18.    Main type of soil found underneath the boreal forest is:
         A.  oxisols     B.  alfisols     C.   podosols     D.   laterite soils    E.  aridosols

19.    Desertification is:
         A.   a natural process causing desert formation
         B.   due to intensification of human activities in areas outside the desert with very
                fragile ecosystem
   C.    due to the disruption of the permafrost conditions by construction
         D.    a type of plant succession
         E.    all of the above conditions

20.    Which of the following functions are performed by a river system?
         A.   erosion     B.   transportation    C. deposition   D.  all three functions

21.    The San Andreas fault, where two plates slide past one another, is a famous example of
         what kind of plate boundary?

          A.    divergent plate boundary           B.   convergent plate boundary
          C.    transform plate boundary      D.   triple junction boundary

22.     The Hawaiian Islands

          A.    are a series of shield volcanoes
          B.    formed from a series of violent volcanic eruptions
          C.    lies atop the meeting place of two major tectonic plates
          D.    all of the above

23.      What type of vegetation is dominant in tropical savannas

           A. needle leaf                 B.   broadleaf deciduous     C.  grass and shrubs
 D.  trees and shrubs        E.   xerophytes only

24.      Meat eating animals are known as:

           A.   herbivores          B.   carnivores       C.     detrivores      D.   ominivores
           E.   all of the above

25.     In drier areas, such as in central Asia, the vegetation belt called short-grass prairie is also
          known as:

           A.   tundra       B.   savanna      C.  steppe    D.  boreal      E.   selva

26.   Which of the following does not describe endogenic geologic processes?
        A.  Movement of portions of earth's surface horizontally and vertically
        B.  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, formation of mountain ranges at plate boundaries
        C. Geologic processes acting on the surface of the earth
D.  Plate tectonics processes

27.  Most world deserts are located in the subtropical high pressure belt because:
       A.  air is continuously rising to form cloud and precipitation in the belt
       B.  air subsidence inhibits the rise of air
       C.  of air convergence
       D.  the air is dry and dusty

28.  Earth's rocks, soils, and surface landforms together comprise the
      A.  Lithosphere       B.  Biosphere          C.   Troposphere     D.  Hydrosphere
      E.  Atmosphere

29.  Permafrost is commonly associated with:
      A.  Mid-latitude broadleaf deciduous forest
      B.  Tropical rainforest
      C.  Needleleaf forest
      D.  Temperate forest
      E.  Tundra forest

30.  Which biome includes much of the Amazon and Congo basins?
      A.  Mid-latitude broadleaf deciduous forest
      B.  Tropical rainforest
      C.  Needleleaf forest
      D.  Temperate forest
      E.  Tundra forest

31.  Where  are earthquakes most likely to occur?
32.  Why are rainforest tree caponies stratified into three layers?
33.  Why are tundra plants have low tender-stems?
34.  What is an ecosystem?
35.  Why is Mediterranean vegetation referred to as sclerophyll forest?




INSTRUCTIONS:     Answer TWO questions.  Each answer MUST NOT exceed
typed pages. Read the class textbook, class notes and other sources before attempting the questions.

1.  With the aid of a well-labeled diagram, describe landforms produced by faulting and give   examples where the landforms are found.

2.  Write all you know about the following:
      (a)   orographic precipitation
      (b)   mass movement

3.   Describe and explain the spatial distribution of population in the United States. Illustrative map and/or diagram required.

4.   Compare and contrast between:
      (a)   environmental determinism and possibilism
      (b)   conformal and equal area projections
      (c)  formal and vernacular regions



1.                    India and the United Kingdom have approximately the same arithmetic density.  From this we can conclude that the two countries have the same

A.        level of output per farmer

B.        number of people per area of land

C.        pressure placed by people on the land to produce food

D.        all of the above

2.         Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15, while country Y has a crude birth rate of 20 and crude death rate of 9. Which country has the higher natural increase rate?

A.        country X

B.        country Y

C.        the rate is the same in both countries

D.        the rate can't be computed

3.         The difference between population geography and demography is that population geography is

A.        totally concerned with human migration

B.        the study of individual population in terms of specific group characteristics

C.        the study of the distribution of humankind across the globe

D.        the science of "describing people"

4.         The world's most populous country is

A.        Brazil                B.         India                 C.        Russia             
D.        China
              E.         United States

5.         The constitution of the United States requires a decennial census to

            A.        count the population only

B.        reapportion seats in the House of representatives

C.        establish tax rolls

D.        establish the number of Senators to be elected

E.        register all eligible males for the draft

6.         Most of the world's population is concentrated in areas that are designated as:

A.        A-climate         B.         B-climate          C.        C-climate       

D.        D-climate         E.         E-climate

7.         The most popular form of birth control in poor countries like India is

A.        sterilization                 B.         birth control                  C.        abortion

D.        intrauterine devices       E.         abstention

8.         Life expectancies have increased partially as the result of modern medicine.

            A.        True                 B.         False               

9.    Population densities tend to be low 

A.                 in level terrain.

B.                 in cold climates.

C.                 in areas of fertile soil.

D.                 near the sea.

10.       Of all communicable diseases, this one currently causes the most deaths worldwide and responsible for a drastic drop in life expectancies in most developing countries in Africa.

A.        malaria                         B.         tuberculosis                  C.        AIDS
D.        cholera                        

11.   Between 1990 and 2000, population increase was highest in

A.        Africa.                         B.         Europe.            C.        Latin America.
D.        North America.

12.       The Eastern United States seaboard is more densely populated than the Midwest because of:

            A.        topographic factors
B.         climatic factors
C.        historical factors
D.        economic factors
E.         C and D

13.       An infant mortality rate of below 10 infant deaths per 1,000 live births is most likely to occur in which of the following countries?

A.        Denmark          B.         India                 C.        Nigeria             D.        USA
E.         A and D

14.       The male to female ratio is usually more than 100 in which of the following countries?

A.        Canada                        B.         United Kingdom          
C.        Italy                  D.        India                E.         USA

15.       The common obstacles to population control include the following:
A.        high cost of contraceptive devices

            B.         religion
C.        lack of political and economic rights for women

            D.        cultural preference for male offspring

            E.         all of the above

16.       The second stage of the demographic transition model is characterized by the following, except:
A.        a high birth rate                         B.        a sharp drop in birth rate
C.        a sharp drop in death rate                     D.        improving household income

            E.         improving quantity & quality of food supply

17.       Which country has the highest number of people infected by HIV/AIDS in the world?
A.        Africa               B.         South Africa                 C.        India
D.        Asia                 E.         Botswana        

18.       Neo-Malthusians are also called:
A.        Cornucopians                           B.         Migrants           C.        Pessimists

            D.        Catastrophians                       E.         Demographers

19.       Which of the following statements is correct?

A.        Degenerative diseases that degrade the body are more common in developed countries

B.                 Infectious and parasitic diseases are more common in poor countries

C.                 Malaria disease accounts for 2% of all deaths but 80% of the deaths occur in Africa

D.                 Diarrhea diseases like cholera are communicable diseases common in poor countries and account for 4% of all deaths

E.                  All of the above

20.       The demographic transition model shows the population growth experience of the developed countries of today that may not be relevant in explaining the population growth experiences of poor countries of today
A.        True                B.         False

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