ECE 535 Advanced Image Compression Methods and Algorithms - 3 hours credit

Professor: Dr. Scott E Umbaugh Office: Engineering Building, Room EB3037

Phone: 650-2524, 2948 e-mail:

Class Format: Lecture and Project. Lectures of advanced compression methods and algorithms not covered in ECE 439 will be presented. Additionally, topics of current interest in research areas of image compression, will be presented. The students will also participate by presenting journal papers as well as their own term projects.

Description: Advanced image compression methods and algorithms, along with topics of current interest in image compression and coding. Applications of image coding and compression, multi-dimensional image processing. Group projects.

Objectives: To familiarize the student with current areas of research interest in image compression. Various paper presentations by the professor and students will be used to achieve this goal. The students will become familiar with the literature - journals, magazines, conferences, etc. - in this research area.

Prerequisite: ECE439 or consent of instructor

Reference Text(s): Digital Image Processing, 4th Edition, Gonzalez and Woods, Pearson, 2018; Digital Image Processing and Analysis: Application with MATLAB and CVIPtools, 3rd Edition, SE Umbaugh, Taylor&Francis/CRC Press, 2018









Image compression lectures: LZW, arithmetic coding, DPC, fractal, transform coding, wavelet-based compression; Reading: Gonzalez/Woods – Chapter 8: 617-622, 632-680; Umbaugh – Chapter 7: 379-384, Chapter 10: 581-583, 596-614; Homework –  Umbaugh book Chapter 10: 7,8,9,15,16,22-28, Suppl. 1-5



Work on homework, project research



Homework due



Journal paper/Project proposal



Project meetings



Progress presentations by students, project meetings



Project meetings



Project presentations, project paper due: 1) hand in hard copy, and 2) email soft copy before the presentation



  • 20% Homework
  • 10% Project proposal and journal paper presentation
  • 5% Progress report presentation
  • 65% term project – paper (see below), presentation

Class Attendance Policy: Based on University Class Attendance Policy 1I9: It is the responsibility of students to ascertain the policies of instructors with regard to absence from class, and to make arrangements satisfactory to instructors with regard to missed course work. Failure to attend the first session of a course may result in the student’s place in class being assigned to another student.

Class Policies:  Students needing accommodations because of medical diagnosis or major life impairment will need to register with Accessible Campus Community & Equitable Student Support (ACCESS) and complete an intake process before accommodations will be given. Students who believe they have a diagnosis but do not have documentation should contact ACCESS for assistance and/or appropriate referral. The ACCESS office is located in the Student Success Center, Room 1270. You can also reach the office by e-mail at or by calling 618.650.3726. For more information on policies, procedures, or necessary forms, please visit the ACCESS website at

Students are expected to be familiar with and follow the Student Academic Code. It is included in the SIUE Policies and Procedures under Section 3C2.2. .


Term Project: The project may be from one of the active research areas here at SIUE:

1. Skin Lesion Detection and Evaluation

2. Retinal Fundus Image Evaluation

3. Veterinary Thermographic Image

4. Veterinary Thermographic Images Remapped

5. CVIPtools Development

6. Matlab CVIP Toolbox Development

Or a topic of your choice approved by the professor.

You may choose any project relating to image compression or coding. You are to perform graduate level research in your area of choice and to build on previous work for your project. Projects will be individual in small classes or groups in large classes.

A paper will be written describing the project and discussing what was learned during the project. The final paper will be about 25 to 50 pages, typed, double-spaced (excluding appendices). Include images in the paper!  

For a group project, you are required to submit three evaluations of the work performed by each member in your group, including yourself. These evaluations are as follows:

  • These are all confidential, the only person to see them is the Professor. The Professor will make final grade decisions.
  • Justify the grades you assign with specifics - for example, "we scheduled three meetings, student X always showed up prepared, or student Y was never on time and did not have their part of the project completed".
  • These will be emailed directly to me at before each of the three milestones – proposal, progress report presentation and final report.
  • Include your name, group members names, which of the three milestones and the date. A short evaluation should be written about each member of your group, including yourself.
  • Two items for each person: 1) Your evaluation of their work in words. 2) A number of points based on the following:
  • 5 points are to be allotted for each person, 2 people give a total of 10 points. If you feel you both contributed equally, give 5 points to each person. If you feel you did a little more, give yourself 6 and the other person 4. If you feel one person did all the work, give that person 10 points and the other zero. In other words, distribute all the points according to the amount of work each person contributed to the project. Note that this is a zero sum process - the total must add up to 10. These evaluations will be used as part of your grade, and will be used to determine individual project grades.

Ø  In addition to handing in a paper copy of the report, email me a soft copy of the Word file. Before you send me the file give it a meaningful name that includes your last name(s) and the project title.

Your final paper will conform to the following format:

Paper Format Outline

  • 1. Title page (project title, names, course number, date, etc.)
  • 2. Table of contents with page numbers for: different sections, figures, appendices, etc.
  • 3. Abstract - 1 page or less. Concise description of what is contained in the paper, include brief summary of results.
  • 4. Introduction/Project overview - about 1 to 2 pages.
  • 5. Body of paper. Broken down into sections as required for your part of the project. For example: Background/theory, experimental methods, discussion and analysis of results, program descriptions, etc. Present results using graphs, images, etc., about 10 to 25 pages
  • 6. Summary and conclusions. Summarize any results and draw conclusions as based on these results. About 1 to 4 pages.
  • 7. Suggestions for future work. Include any ideas you have based on your work and conclusions about followup experiments and/or research. 1 to 2 pages.
  • 8. References. Be sure your references are complete. Avoid web sites as references – these come and go – find the source, which is usually a published paper.
  • 9. Appendices - related background information, program listings, etc.

General: reports should be typed, double spaced, pages numbered starting with abstract. The number of pages listed above are only guidelines, do what is necessary, but keep it concise. DO NOT put in plastic folder, simply staple in upper left hand corner.

The students will give a presentation of the project during the last week of the semester.

Grading: The project is worth 65% of your grade, broken down as follows:

  • - 15% Difficulty and complexity
  • - 20% Quality of work and success
  • - 10% Quantity of work
  • - 10% Project paper
  • - 10% Project presentation

Suggested Project Process:

  • 1) Define the project you wish to pursue
  • 2) Library research for existing algorithms (to get ideas)
  • 3) Define C function(s), or Matlab functions to implement related to project
  • 4) Code and debug your function(s)
  • 5) Test your functions on real images
  • 6) Process images/do the experiments
  • 7) Analyze results using appropriate metrics, tabulate or plot, etc.
  • 8) Write report, include images
  • 9) Demonstration to the class



  • 13 Windows imaging workstations, frame grabber and image compression boards
  • HP color scanner, 1200 dpi
  • HP Color Laser Printer
  • Digitizing stations with CCD cameras, zoom and standard lenses, controlled light boxes
  • Sony digital Mavica still/MPEG camera, XGA resolution (768x1024)
  • Canesta’s DP205 3-D camera


  • CVIPtools: a comprehensive Computer Vision and Image Processing package developed at SIUE
  • Matlab: CVIP, Image Processing, Neural Network, and Digital Signal Processing Toolboxes
  • Image databases: Image Databases
  • Microsoft Office, word processing, presentations, etc
  • Microsoft Visual Studio



NOTE: In ECE 535 you are required to keep a research engineer's notebook which will be reviewed by the professor during group meetings.

INTRODUCTION: The technical notebook is one of the most important tools for any engineering work. This includes: basic research, product development, or engineering design. It is primarily for the researcher's own use, but another person with similar technical background should be able to understand and duplicate any experiment, data, and conclusion, or to prepare a technical report following only the notebook.

There are many reasons to keep an accurate and complete record of your work:

  • to establish the authenticity of the work.
  • to defend patents.
  • to act as a basis for technical reports and articles.
  • to avoid duplication of effort.

The nature of the work and the purpose of the research will influence the content and format of the notebook.

CONTENT REQUIREMENTS: The notebook must be understandable to a person with a comparable technical background. It must be legible. It must be complete; for example, "We got code from book" is NOT an acceptable entry - what code ?, what page ?, what does it do ?, did you have to recompile it ?, etc.

The notebook must answer the following questions:

  • WHAT WAS DONE? This includes the approach to the research problem. Any ideas generated should be included. Algorithmic flowcharts, references used, notes taken, etc. should be included.
  • WHO DID IT? List all those who participate in the project for a given entry, including yourself, at the beginning of each entry. Any corrections or alterations should be initialed.
  • WHEN WAS IT DONE? It must be obvious to any reader when the work was performed. Date all pages and entries; entires that extend beyond one page should be dated on each page. Do not leave blank spaces and NEVER "back-date" entries (NEVER make ANY false entries in your engineering notebook).

General: The typical engineers notebook available in bookstores will be blue, brown or black, is approximately 9" X 12", and has about 100 to 150 pages. The notebook will be bound, never looseleaf, and the pages should be numbered consecutively, preferably by the printer. For the our purposes you may use spiral notebooks, as long as each page is numbered and each entry is dated.

A neat, organized and complete notebook record is as important as the investigation itself. The notebook is the original record of what was done. It is not a report to be written after completing an investigation. Do not write on scratch paper expecting to transfer it later to the notebook. Use a blue or black non-eraseable pen. Errors are not erased, but simply marked through with a single line so that they still can be read - later you may discover that your "error" contains important information.

Leave the first page or two in the notebook blank for a Table of Contents. This is necessary so that your work can easily be referenced. Use only the right-hand, odd-numbered pages for the notebook record. Use the left-hand, even-numbered pages for sketches, rough calculations, and memos to yourself. You may also place diagrams and graphs on the left, opposite corresponding procedures and calculations. Do not leave any blank spaces/pages in the notebook.

Format - Technical Diary

Organization of this format type is left to the engineer. This format is suited to experimental work, design work, and research. The general format and content requirements must be met. Notes, program code, flowcharts, procedures, data, and calculations are blended together logically and chronologically to form a step-by- step diary describing work. Observations and conclusions are entered as they are made, and summarized at the logical end of a section. This format is well suited for research.

Brief Bibliography


  • Umbaugh, SE, Digital Image Processing and Analysis: Applications with Matlab and CVIPtools, 3rd  Edition,  CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2017
  • Acharya, T., Ray, A.K., Image Processing: Principles and Applications, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005
  • Bhaskaran, V., Konstantinides, K., Image and Video Compression Standards: Algorithms and Architectures 2nd Edition, Springer, 1997
  • Castleman, K.R., Digital Image Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996
  • Clarke, R.J., Digital Compression of Still Images and Video, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1995
  • Delp, E.J., Mitchell, O.R., Image Compression Using Block Truncation Coding, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 1335 1342, September 1979
  • Fisher. Y., editor, Fractal Image Compression: Theory and Application, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1995
  • Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008
  • Guo, L., Umbaugh, S., Cheng, Y., Compression of Color Skin Tumor Images with Vector Quantization, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 20, No.6, Nov/Dec 2001, pp. 152-164
  • Haidekker, M.A., Advanced Biomedical Image Analysis, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011
  • Huffman, D.A., A Method for the Reconstruction of Minimum Redunancy Codes, Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 40, Number 10, pp. 1098-1101, 1952
  • Hunter, R., Robinson, A.H., International Digital Facsimile Coding Standards, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 68, No. 7, pp. 854-867, 1980
  • Jain, A.K., Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989
  • Kjoelen, A., Umbaugh, S. E,  Zuke, M., Compression of Skin Tumor Images,  IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 3, May/June 1998, pp.73-80.
  • Kjoelen, A., Wavelet Based Compression of Skin Tumor Images, Master's Thesis in Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, 1995
  • Kou, W., Digital Image Compression: Algorithms and Standards, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995
  • Linde, Y., Buzo, A., Gray, R.M., An Algorithm for Vector Quantizer Design, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 84-89, January 1980
  • Kumaran, M., Umbaugh, S.E., A Dynamic Window-Based Runlength Coding Algorithm Applied to Gray-Level Images, Graphical Models and Image Processing, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 267-282, July 1995
  • Netravali, A.N., Haskell, B.G, Digital Pictures: Representation, Compression and Standards 2nd Edition, NY: Plenum Press, 1995
  • Orzessek, M., Sommer, P., ATM and MPEG-2: Integrating Digital Video into Broadband Networks, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1998
  • Poynton, C., Digital Video and HD:  Algorithms and Interfaces 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2012
  • Rabbani, M., Jones, P.W., Digital Image Compression Techniques, SPIE--International Society for Optical Engineeering, 1991
  • Rangayyan, R.M., Biomedical Image Analysis, NY: CRC Press, 2005
  • Rosenfeld, A., Kak, A.C., Digital Picture Processing, San Diego, CA: AcademicPress, 1982
  • Ryan, T.W, Sanders L.D., Fisher, H.D., Iverson, A.E., Image Compression by Texture Modeling in the Wavelet Domain, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 26-36, January 1996
  • Sid-Ahmed, M.A. Image Processing: Theory, Algorithms, and Architectures, NY: McGraw Hill, 1995
  • Sonka, M., Hlavac, V., Boyle, R., Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision 4th Edition, Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2014
  • Taubman, D.S., Marcellin, M.W., JPEG2000: Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002
  • Tekalp, A.M., Digital Video Processing, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995
  • Tranter,W.H, Ziemer, R.E., Principles of Communications, 6th Edition, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008
  • Watt, A., Policarpo, F., The Computer Image, New York, NY: Addison-Wesley, 1998
  • Welch, T.A., A Technique for High-Performance Data Compression, IEEE Computer, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 8-19, 1984
  • Welstead, S., Fractal and Wavelet Image Compression Techniques, Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press, 1999
  • Wu, Y., Coll, D.C., Multilevel Block Truncation Coding Using a Minimax Error Criterion for High Fidelity Compression of Digital Images, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 8, August 1993
  • Ziv, J., Lempel, J., A Universal Algorithm for Sequential Data Compression, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 530-537, 1977


  •  IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
  •  IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology
  •  Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (CVGIP)
  •  CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing
  •  CVGIP: Image Understanding
  •  IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
  •  Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics
  •  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
  •  IEEE Transactions on Computers
  •  Pattern Recognition
  •  IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
  •  IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
  •  IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  •  Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
  •  International Journal of Remote Sensing
  •  Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
  •  IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
  •  ACM Siggraph publications
  •  Numerous Conference Proceedings and other journals from:

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

SMPTE - The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

PRS - Pattern Recognition Society

ACM - Association for Computing Machinery