||Students complete most assignments
individually, and the sharing of ideas and resources is seldom
||Students work together on highly
structured tasks. Student roles are defined and controlled by
the teacher. Projects and other instructional tasks are designed
to be completed by groups, and students are encouraged to share
ideas and resources.
||Students are encouraged to take
responsibility for defining problems, setting goals, learning
to evaluate and use information resources, and assessing their
| Knowledge Building
||Students work individually to do
the best they can. Sharing information and resources may be considered
|Students periodically work in groups.
Competition across groups is valued and encouraged.
||Students are provided many opportunities
within the course of their work on an assignment to gather information
and feedback from multiple sources including libraries, museums,
colleges, other community information sources as well as other
students, community members, experts, etc.
||Students have limited opportunities
to learn about the experiences and perspectives of other students.
||Students have opportunities to learn
about the knowledge, experiences, and perspectives of others,
but those opportunities are not directly linked to instructional
||Instruction is explicitly designed
to solicit, incorporate, and build upon the knowledge, experiences,
and perspectives of all students, e.g., through the use of brainstorming
and other strategies.
||Students remain in the same group
for the entire semester or year.
||Groups are formed for the entire
semester or year, but individual students may be moved to a different
group as indicated by performance.
||Groups are formed for specific purposes--
e.g., common interest and need for specific skill building--and
reformed on a regular basis.
||Students primarily work with students of similar
||Students have occasional opportunities to work
beyond their ability groups.
||Students have frequent opportunities to get
to know and work with all other students. All students have challenging
||Students are sometimes grouped by ability within
and between grades. At other times, whole-group instruction is
||Students are often grouped by ability but periodically
work in heterogeneous groups.
||Students primarily work in heterogeneous groups
and less often in ability groups.