[1] The city was renamed in honour of Lenin in February 1924, but Shostakovich refuses to call it Leningrad. On 2nd March he quotes Lenin's observation that film is the most useful of the arts, adding that he prefers the useless ones: music and ballet. On 26th April and 3rd June 1924, he gives his address as "Saint Leninburg".

[2] In the same letter he mentions having done some music for "the 10th anniversary" (of the October revolution). He wrote it "in a hurry" and wonders what people will think of it.

[3] Elizabeth Wilson, Shostakovich: A Life Remembered, p. 46. [Hereafter referred to as EW.]

[4] Khentova, "A Russian Love Story Sold at Sotheby's", Musical Life (1992), No. 3. [See DSCH XXI.]

[5] EW, op. cit., p. 41.

[6] "Notes by Maxim", transcribed by John-Michael Albert (1990), DSCH Journal No. 4. [Hereafter referred to as JMA.]

[7] JMA, op. cit.

[8] EW, op. cit., p. 314.

[9] Interviewed by Irina Nikolska, melos 4-5 (Summer 1993). [Hereafter referred to as Nikolska.]

[10] EW, op. cit., p. 335.

[11] On 18th June 1926 he reports starting on a piano concerto.

[12] EW, op. cit., p. 61.

[13] A Certain Art, p. 204.

[14] Apart from some pro-Lenin remarks made in letters to Tanya Glivenko early in 1924 - and contradicted by other Lenin references later in the same year - there is little evidence of any political interest, let alone enthusiasm, in the Glivenko letters 1923-1931.

[15] Nikolska.

[16] EW, op. cit., p. 72.

[17] JMA, op. cit.

[18] JMA, op. cit.

[19] Daugava, 3-4. [See DSCH XVIII-XXI.]

[20] See EW, op. cit., pp. 115-120.

[21] JMA, op. cit.

[22] Interview with Pierre Vidal. [See DSCH XIII.]

[23] Letters to a Friend, pp. 10-13. (Glikman's Shostakovich always talks in this earnest and formal - not to say bowdlerised - way, as if dictating to posterity a harmless version of his views suitable for young adolescents.)

[24] Interviewed by John Riley [DSCH XVIII].

[25] Interview with Pierre Vidal. [See DSCH XIII.]

[26] JMA, op. cit.

[27] JMA, op. cit.

[28] DSCH XIV.

[29] Interview with John Riley, 1992 [DSCH XX].

[30] EW, op. cit., p. 426.

[31] EW, op. cit., p. 139.

[32] Barsova, Inna, "Between 'Social Demands' and the 'Music of Grand Passions' [The Years 1934-37 in the life of Dmitri Shostakovich]", paper, University of Michigan, 28th January 1994. Hereafter referred to as Barsova.

[33] Per Skans' sleevenote to Olympia OCD 576.

[34] Barsova, op. cit.

[35] JMA, op. cit.

[36] Interview with John Riley, 1992 [DSCH XX].

[37] The Independent, 6th April 1991.

[38] In 1936, his former companion Elena Konstantinovskaya and the Shostakovich family friend Galina Serebryakova were arrested. In 1937, his mother-in-law Sofia Varzar, brother-in-law Vsevolod Frederiks, and uncle Maxim Kostrikin were arrested, and his sister Maria exiled to Frunze. The musicologist Nikolai Zhilyaev was arrested and executed soon after Tukhachevsky. During 1938, Boris Kornilov, author of words to "Song of the Meeting" from Counterplan, was arrested (and later done away with), as was Adrian Piotrovsky, author of Rule Britannia and librettist of The Limpid Stream. In 1939, Meyerhold was arrested, tortured, and executed.

[39] According to Grigori Fried (EW, op. cit., p. 122), Shostakovich brought the first two movements to Zhilyaev's communal flat in Moscow soon after finishing them. (He was on his way back from a journey to the south and was due that evening to return to Leningrad.) Zhilyaev thought what he had seen "quite wonderful". If Shostakovich composed the Largo in June after Tukhachevsky's death, Zhilyaev, himself arrested around this time, could have seen no more of the score.

[40] Nikolska, Irina, interviews about Shostakovich, melos 4-5 (Summer 1993), pp. 65-87.

[41] EW, op. cit., p. 390.

[42] Kurt Sanderling concurs: "This is not a boisterous scherzo, but a grim and biting parody." Interviewed by Hans Bitterlich, 1992. (Sleevenote, Berlin Classics BC2063-2.)

[43] JMA, op. cit.

[44] Classic CD, November 1995. In DSCH Journal No. 6 [Winter 1996], Sanderling adds: "We understood what he was saying. And it was not the 'Triumph' of the mighty, of those in power. There was no need for further explanation."

[45] Interviewed by Hans Bitterlich, 1992.

[46] EW, op. cit., p. 390.

[47] See Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, Vol. 1, pp. 229-431.

[48] EW, op. cit., p. 127.

[49] Interviewed by Hans Bitterlich, 1992.

[50] Interviewed by Edward Rothstein, The Independent Magazine, 12th November 1988.

[51] Interview with John Riley, 1992 [DSCH XX].

[52] EW, op. cit., pp. 132-8. Richard Taruskin's alternative account of the reception of the Fifth Symphony ignores Chulaki's testimony altogether. (See Ian MacDonald, "Thoughts on David Fanning's 'Shostakovich Studies', DSCH Journal No. 5 [Summer 1996], pp. 10-29.)

[53] Interviewed by Mark Pappenheim, BBC Music Magazine, [February 1995], pp. 16-20.

Back to Recent Commentary. Back to Shostakovichiana. B ack to Contents.