· What are the subdivisions of geology?
· Know the spatial aspect of the solar system (planet)
· Know some of the basic properties of the planets.
· Terrestrial vs. Big Planets
· Speed of Light question.
· What is the plane of the ecliptic? What is the angle of the earth’s axis with respect to the plane of the ecliptic?
· What makes earth unique from the other planets
· How far is earth from the sun? When is the sun closest to the earth?
· Vernal vs. Autumnal Equinox.
· What effect has water had on earth?
· What is the basic composition of the atmosphere?
· What are the basic layers of the atmosphere?
· What do the atmosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere have in common?
· What percentage of the earth is covered by water?
· How much of the earth’s water is fresh water?
· What is the biosphere? Where are its boundaries?
· What is the lithosphere? What two rock types make up the lithosphere?
Structure of the Earth
· Know the compositional and structural layers of the earth. –this is a big topic.
· What causes the earth’s magnetism?
· Where is the magnetic pole?
· Know the characteristics of the continents.
· Know the components of a continent.
· Know the characteristic of the ocean floor.
· Know the major features of the ocean floor.
· Know the three types of crustal deformation
· Know the three basic types of folds
· Know the three basic types of faults.
· Know the hanging wall vs. the footwall.
· What causes the plates to move? What is convection in the mantle?
· What causes mountains to form? What causes ocean trenches?
The Dynamic Earth
· Know the hydrologic process.
· Know the basic characteristics for rivers, glaciers, groundwater, and shoreline systems.
· What are some of the major problems with the hydrologic system?
· What is a convergent plate boundary? Divergent? Transform?
· What is isostacy? Be able to give some examples of isostatic adjustment.
· Where do earthquakes occur? Why?
· What is the name of the fault that is found just south of St. Louis?
· How have humans been able to modify the hydrologic system?
· Know the history of the attempts to date the earth.
· Relative dating vs. absolute dating.
· Know what an unconformity is.
· Know the basic principals of relative dating.
· Know the basic geologic time scale
· What were the major subdivisions of the geologic time scale based upon.
· Radioactive Decay (parent, daughter)
· The half-life of the elements listed in class
· How old the earth is scientifically estimated to be and how we can determine it
· Know what geologic period we are currently experiencing
· Did dinosaurs really exist during the Jurassic
· What is a mineral – five primary characteristics
· How is graphite different from a diamond?
· Where and under what conditions do crystals form?
· What is cleavage – What minerals have one, two, and three directions of cleavage?
· What is hardness – What is the name of the hardness scale – list the primary minerals of the hardness scale.
· How hard are a fingernail, a copper penny, and a glass plate?
· What minerals have a high specific gravity?
· How is color different from streak? Which is the best for mineral identification?
· What mineral has conchoidal fracture? What mineral has an adamantine luster?
· What minerals have a metallic luster? Which minerals have striations?
· What is conchoidal fracture?
· What is a rhombus?
· Where do igneous rock originate (i.e., from what material)
· What is magma? What are the two types of magma?
· Know the different textures of igneous rocks and where they are found
· What is a porphyritic texture and under what conditions does it form?
· What are the primary minerals found in granite and rhyolite?
· What are the primary minerals found in granite and gabbro?
· What kind of texture does pumice have?
· Is granite intrusive or extrusive? Is basalt intrusive or extrusive?
· What color are mafic minerals? What color are felsic minerals?
· When does magma become lava? What are the three types of volcanoes and their characteristics?
· What are a batholith, laccolith, stock, dike, and a sill?
· Where would one find a large batholith?
· Where do sedimentary rocks originate?
· What is the process of sedimentary rock formation?
· What are the basic types of sediment?
· Clastic sediment is named according to size – what is this size breakdown?
· What are some methods of clastic sediment movement?
· What do we mean by rounding (when referring to sediment)?
· What do we mean by well sorted? How do different environments sort materials?
· Define lithification – compaction – cementation.
· Describe one process of chemical sediment deposition.
· What causes deposition of clastic materials?
· If a conglomerate is lithified gravel, what are sandstone, and siltstone?
· Where does limestone originate (i.e., what is the process of formation)?
· Name three different types of limestone?
· What does the word metamorphic mean?
· Metamorphic rocks come from what other types of rocks?
· What are the four causes of metamorphism?
· Where does low-grade metamorphism occur? High grade?
· What are the three types of metamorphism?
· How does the hydrothermal process work?
· When one adds heat and pressure to shale, what is the resulting rock?
· When one adds heat and pressure to quartz sandstone, what is the resulting rock?
· When one adds heat and pressure to limestone, what is the resulting rock?
· A gneiss results from what grade metamorphism? Schist and Slate?
· What is the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering?
· Know the different type of mechanical weathering and how they work.
· Know the primary type of chemical weathering and basically, how they work.
· How can jointing affect the mechanical weathering process (accelerate or decelerate?)
· What is regolith? What is the soil solum?
· What are the characteristics of the A-horizon and the B-horizon?
· Know the difference between illuviation and eluviation.
· Know the fertility of soils that formed under different natural vegetation conditions
· Know the five soil forming factors
· What is the zone of accumulation, zone of leaching, etc.
· What is mass wasting?
· Know the factors that control Mass Wasting.
· What is creep. – Creep vs. Mudflow.
· What is solifluction. – what is permafrost?
· What is subsidence and what are the two primary ways that it can occur?
· Components of a stream.
· stream gradient – be able to calculate.
· Discharge – be able to calculate.
· Things that affect stream flow.
· Processes of stream erosion.
· Competence vs. Capacity.
· Types of sediment transport.
· What happens when stream slow down?
· Mid-channel bar vs. a point bar deposit.
· Oxbow lake and meander scar.
· What is a flood plain?
· Why do rivers and streams have large bends and curves?
· What is groundwater?
· Water table vs. zone of aeration
· Porosity vs. permeability
· Types of porosity
· Types of rocks with low and high permeability
· Characteristics of the water table
· What causes the movement of groundwater?
· What is hydraulic head?
· What is a perched water table?
· What causes an artesian well?
· What causes the formation of a spring?
· What causes a geyser?
· What is the process of erosion by groundwater
· How do caves form? – stalactite vs. stalagmite .
· What are some of the changes occurring in our groundwater?