Year     Shostakovich: Life And Works      Contemporary Soviet Music           Contemporary Soviet Culture       Contemporary Soviet Life            
                                                                                                                                                     
1956     49-50. January: receives          Shebalin: The Taming of the Shrew   Second 'thaw'. Wave of            The 'Year of Protest'. Widespread   
         diploma of St Cecilia in Rome;    (opera) Shchedrin: The Little       rehabilitated intellectuals       unrest in the Soviet bloc.          
         finishes film score The First     Humpbacked Horse (ballet) Glier:    return from Siberia (including    February: Khrushchev 'unmasks'      
         Echelon, Op.99. March 11-12:      Violin Concerto Volkonsky: Musica   Akhmatova's son). May: Fadeyev    Stalin in his 'Secret Speech' to    
         Katerina Ismailova officially     Stricta Sviridov: To the Memory     shoots himself.  Dudintsev: Not   the 20th Party Congress. June       
         auditioned and rejected.          of Esenin Kabalevsky: Romeo and     By Bread Alone (novel) Khikmet:   28-29: Poznan strike in Poland      
         Summer: 6 Spanish Songs,          Juliet Eshpay: Violin Concerto      Did Ivan Ivanovich Ever Exist?    put down by Soviet tanks. June      
         Op.100. Simple Folk (1945)        No. 1 Vainberg: Cello Concerto      (play) Nilin: Probationary        30: Central Committee issues        
         released. Marries Margarita       Ivanovs: Symphony No. 8 Popov:      Period (novella) Yashin: Levers   resolution on 'overcoming the       
         Kainova. August: Quartet No. 6    Symphony No. 5                      (novella) Literary Moscow I &     personality cult' (of J.V.          
         in G, Op.101. September 25:                                           II (anthologies) Yevtushenko:     Stalin). October-November:          
         Order of Lenin.                                                       Zima Junction (poem) Kozintsev:   Hungarian Uprising crushed by Red   
                                                                               Don Quixote (film) Chukrai: The   Army. 25,000 die. End of            
                                                                               Fortyfirst (film)                 liberalisation.                     
                                                                                                                                                     
1957     50-51. Spring: guest at Prague    Karayev: Path of Thunder (ballet)   Clamp-down. Khrushchev            First highrise housing complexes,   
         Spring Festival. Piano Concerto   Volkonsky: Music for 12             reprimands Dudintsev.             (eg., Cheryomushki). Beginning of   
         No. 2 in F, op.102. March         Instruments Vainberg: Symphony      Yevtushenko criticised.           campaign against 'parasites'        
         28-April 5: attends Second        No. 4 Khrennikov: The Mother        November: Doctor Zhivago          (nominally 'anti-social             
         Congress of Composers' Union.     (opera) Denisov: Quartet No. 1      published in Italy and Germany.   elements'; in practice,             
         Summer: Symphony No. 11 in G      Gubaidulina: Piano Quintet          Nikolayeva: A Running Battle      nonconformist writers and           
         minor, Op. 103 ('The Year         Tishchenko: Quartet No. 1; Piano    (novel) Kalatazov: The Cranes     artists). July: Khrushchev          
         1905') for the 40th anniversary   Sonata No. 1 Schnittke: Violin      Are Flying (film)                 liquidates 'anti-Party              
         of the October Revolution.        Concerto No. 1 Peiko: Symphony                                        opposition' (Malenkov,              
         September: S. made a Secretary    No. 3 Shchedrin: Symphony No. 1                                       Kaganovich, Molotov), gaining       
         of Union of Soviet Composers.     Ustvolskaya: Piano Sonata No. 4                                       supreme power. October 3: riots     
         October 30: Eleventh Symphony     Ivanovs: The Bear-Skinner                                             in Warsaw. October 4: Sputnik,      
         premiered in Moscow. Greatest                                                                           first satellite. October 26:        
         popular success since Seventh                                                                           Khrushchev eliminates his chief     
         Symphony. November: 2 Russian                                                                           supporter in July, Marshal          
         Folk Songs (Cultivation),                                                                               Zhukov, for 'Bonapartism'.          
         Op.104.                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
1958     51-52. Spring: operetta Moscow,   Tishchenko: Violin Concerto No.     Nationwide drive against          Milovan Djilas's The New Class      
         Cheryomushki, Op.105. April 22:   1; French Symphony Volkonsky:       religion. October: Pasternak      published in Yugoslavia. Unrest     
         Lenin Prize for Eleventh          Quartet No. 2; Serenade for an      awarded Nobel Prize for Doctor    in universities leads to trial of   
         Symphony. May 28: CP Resolution   Insect Kabalevsky: Song of          Zhivago. Forced to renounce it,   Union of Patriots of Russia         
         to correct 'errors' of 1948       Morning, Spring, and Peace          he is thrown out of the           (protesting Moscow students).       
         decree. June: Honorary            (cantata) Gubaidulina: Symphony     Writers' Union. November:         March 27: Khrushchev ousts          
         Doctorate, Oxford. Summer:        Schnittke: Nagasaki (oratorio)      official campaign of harassment   Bulganin, becoming chairman of      
         re-orchestrates Khovanschina      Balanchivadze: Symphony No. 2       against Pasternak. December:      Council of Ministers.               
         for film, Op.106. Begins to       Karetnikov: Symphony No. 3          Sakharov appeals to Khrushchev                                        
         feel pain in right hand.          Lokshin: Symphony No. 1 Tubin:      to stop H-bomb tests.                                                 
         December: meets Irina             Symphony No. 7                      Gerasimov: The Quiet Don (film)                                       
         Supinskaya.                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                     
1959     52-53. January 24: premiere of    Sviridov: Pathetic Oratorio         Beginning of poetry readings in   Dissident protest grows in all      
         Moscow, Cheryomushki in Moscow.   Shebalin: The Sun over the Steppe   Mayakovsky Square, Moscow. May:   walks of life. Start of             
         March: visits USA and Mexico.     (opera) Kabalevsky: The Leninists   Khrushchev's address to the       seven-year plan to regenerate       
         May 23: Khovanschina premiered.   (choruses) Karayev: Our Party       Third Congress of Writers'        Soviet agriculture. September:      
         Summer: Cello Concerto No.1 in    (cantata) Vainberg: Violin          Union.  Sholokhov: Virgin Soil    Khrushchev visits USA. Beginning    
         E flat Op.107. October 4: First   Concerto Gubaidulina: Piano         Upturned Pt.2 (novel) Simonov:    of detente.                         
         Cello Concerto premiered in       Concerto Tishchenko: Quartet No.    The Living and the Dead (novel)                                       
         Leningrad (soloist: Mstislav      2 Eshpay: Symphony No. 1            Chukrai: Ballad of a Soldier                                          
         Rostropovich). October: visits    Khrennikov: Violin Concerto         (film) Bondarchuk: Destiny of a                                       
         USA. November 4:                  Salmanov: Symphony No. 2            Man (film)                                                            
         re-orchestration of Boris         Ustvolskaya: Grand Duet for cello                                                                         
         Godunov (1939-40) premiered in    and piano                                                                                                 
         Leningrad. December: buys dacha                                                                                                             
         in Zhukovka outside Moscow.                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                     
1960     53-54. January: hospitalised      Shebalin: Quartet No. 8             May 30: Pasternak dies at         Authorities start confining         
         for treatment to right hand.      Tishchenko: Piano Sonata No. 2      Peredelkino.  Katayev: Winter     dissidents in psychiatric           
         February-March: Quartet No. 7     Volkonsky: Viola Sonata; Mirror     Wind (novel) Tvardovsky: Beyond   hospitals. January 20: successful   
         in F sharp minor, Op.108. April   Suite Kabalevsky: Spring            the Far Distance (poem)           ballistic missile test in the       
         9: re-elected First Secretary     (symphonic poem) Schnittke: Piano   Sinyavsky ('Abraham Tertz'):      Pacific. April: beginning of        
         of RSFSR Composers' Union.        Concerto Ivanovs: Symphony No. 9    The Trial Begins (novel)          break between Russia and China.     
         March-June: 5 Satires (Pictures                                       Grossman: Life and Fate (novel,   May 1: U2 spy-plane shot down       
         of the Past), Op.109. May 15:                                         unpublished)                      over Sverdlovsk. May 17:            
         Seventh Quartet premiered in                                                                            Khrushchev disrupts summit          
         Leningrad. July 12-14: Quartet                                                                          conference over U2 incident.        
         No. 8 in C minor, Op.110, in                                                                                                                
         Dresden. August: film score                                                                                                                 
         Five Days, Five Nights, Op.111,                                                                                                             
         in East Germany. September:                                                                                                                 
         Novorossiisk Chimes. September                                                                                                              
         14: accepted as candidate                                                                                                                   
         member of the Communist Party.                                                                                                              
         Ban on Eighth Symphony                                                                                                                      
         rescinded. October 2: Eighth                                                                                                                
         Quartet premiered in Leningrad.                                                                                                             
         Great success. November: leaves                                                                                                             
         Margarita Kainova.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
1961     54-55. February 22: Pictures of   Shchedrin: Not Love Alone (opera)   Third 'thaw' begins. October:     April 12: cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin    
         the Past premiered in Moscow      Denisov: Siberian Soil (oratorio)   Bukovsky and Kuznetsov            in Vostock first man in space.      
         (soloist: Galina Vishnevskaya).   Gubaidulina: Intermettso            arrested.  Yevtushenko: Babi      June: Berlin crisis begins.         
         Spring: Leningrad University      Tishchenko: Symphony No. 1          Yar (poem) Paustovsky (ed):       August: building of Berlin Wall.    
         invite S. to give postgraduate    Schnittke: Poem About Cosmos        Tarusa Pages (anthology)          September: Grigorenko warns of      
         classes in composition. Summer:   Vaynberg: Flute Concerto            Kochetov: The Secretary of the    new 'cult of personality'           
         Symphony No. 12 in D minor,       Volkonsky: Les Plaintes de          Oblast Committee (novel)          surrounding Khrushchev. October:    
         Op.112 ('The Year 1917').         Chtchaza Tormis: Symphony No. 1     Aksyonov: A Ticket to the Stars   22nd Party Congress. Khrushchev's   
         August: grandson Dmitri born.                                         (story) Sinyavsky ('Abraham       second anti-Stalin speech.          
         October 1: Twelfth Symphony                                           Tertz'): The Icicle (stories)     Removal of Stalin's remains from    
         premiered at 22nd Congress of                                         Serebryakova: The Theft of Fire   the mausoleum in Red Square.        
         Soviet C.P. October: becomes                                          (novel) Katayev: The Catacombs    Highwater mark of                   
         full member of Communist Party.                                       (novel)                           pre-Gorbachevian                    
         To Liszt-Bartok Festival in                                                                             'de-Stalinization'. December:       
         Budapest. December 30: Fourth                                                                           Albania breaks off relations with   
         Symphony (1935-6) premiered in                                                                          USSR over de-Stalinization.         
         Moscow.                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
1962     55-56. Spring: orchestrates       Shebalin: Symphony No. 5            Serebryakova attacks literary     June 2: workers peacefully          
         Songs and Dances of Death         Kabalevsky: Requiem A.              nonconformists. October: Pravda   protesting price-rises in           
         (Mussorgsky). March 25-April 3:   Khachaturian: Concert Rhapsody      prints Yevtushenko's The Heirs    Novocherkassk violently             
         2nd Congress of the Composers'    for violin and orchestra            of Stalin (poem) November: Novy   suppressed by the army. Around 80   
         Union. May: elected delegate to   Vainberg: Symphony No. 5            Mir publishes One Day in the      killed. October: Khrushchev         
         Supreme Soviet of the USSR.       Shchedrin: Piano Sonata             Life of Ivan Denisovich.          announces a 'return to Leninist     
         June 20-July 20: hospitalised.    Volkonsky: Game for Three; Jam      December: Khrushchev enraged by   norms'. October 17: Sino-Soviet     
         Begins Thirteenth Symphony.       Session Eshpay: Symphony No. 2      exhibition of abstract art at     rift becomes official.              
         August: arranges 2 Davidenko      Tishchenko: Piano Concerto          the Manege. Demands new           October-November: Cuban missile     
         Choruses, Op.124; finishes        Ali-Zade: Symphony No. 1 Denisov:   discipline among                  crisis.                             
         Symphony No. 13 in B minor,       Symphony for 2 string orchestras    intelligentsia. End of third                                          
         Op.113. September: to Edinburgh   and percussion Knipper: Symphony    'thaw'.  Solzhenitsyn: One Day                                        
         Festival. December 18:            No. 15 for strings Salmanov:        in the Life of Ivan Denisovich                                        
         Thirteenth Symphony premiered     Children's Symphony                 (novella) Bondarev: Silence                                           
         in Moscow. Great controversy.                                         (novel) Stadnyuk: People are                                          
         December: marries Irina                                               not Angels (novel)                                                    
         Supinskaya. December 26:                                              Serebryakova: Life's Summits                                          
         premiere of Katerina Ismailova                                        (novel) Tarkovsky: Ivan's                                             
         in Leningrad.                                                         Childhood (film) Gerasimov: Men                                       
                                                                               and Beasts (film)                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
1963     56-57. January 8: premiere of     Tishchenko: Cello Concerto No. 1;   March 8: Khrushchev's speech on   Failure of 'Virgin Lands' scheme.   
         Katerina Ismailova in Moscow.     The Twelve (ballet) A.              discipline in the arts. He        Severe food-shortages. Khrushchev   
         Summer: re-orchestrates           Khachaturian: Concert Rhapsody      dictates the line to writers,     buys wheat from Canada. Unrest      
         Schumann's Cello Concerto,        for cello and orchestra Shebalin:   artists, directors. December:     and strikes across the USSR. July   
         Op.125; orchest rates From        Quartet No. 9 Vainberg: Symphony    Serebryakova attacks Ehrenburg    25: Limited Nuclear test Ban        
         Jewish Folk Poetry (1948);        No. 6 Lokshin: Symphony No. 2       with Khrushchev's approval.       Treaty.                             
         Overture on Russian and           Shchedrin: Concerto for Orchestra   Yevtushenko: Precocious                                               
         Khirghiz Themes, Op.115;          No. 1 (Merry Ditties) Pärt:         Autobiography. Tvardovsky:                                            
         arranges Prelude and Fugue 15     Symphony No. 1 Silvestrov:          Tyorkin in the Other World                                            
         and Tarantella (from The          Symphony No. 1 Ivanovs: Symphony    (poem) Shepitko: Heat (film)                                          
         Gadfly) for 2 pfs. December:      No. 10 Mosolov: Quartet No. 2                                                                             
         begins music for Kozintsev's      Sviridov: Petersburg Songs                                                                                
         Hamlet.                           Karetnikov: Symphony No. 4                                                                                
                                           Salmanov: Symphony No. 4                                                                                  
                                           Lyatoshinsky: Symphony No. 4                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                     
1964     57-58. January: finishes film     Denisov: Sun of the Incas           Brodsky tried for 'parasitism'    May: KGB sets fire to library of    
         score Hamlet, Op.116, at          (cantata) Kabalevsky: Cello         in Leningrad. Sentenced to        Ukrainian National Academy of       
         Repino. February 15-23:           Concerto No. 2 A. Khachaturian:     three years' forced labour.       Sciences, destroying some           
         festival of S.'s work in Gorky.   Concert Rhapsody for Piano and      Relaxation while                  national treasures. October 14:     
         April: to Tashkent for            Orchestra Sviridov: Kursk Songs     Brezhnev/Kosygin regime settles   Khrushchev deposed. Brezhnev        
         festival. May: meets Sholokhov    Khrennikov: Cello Concerto          in: beginning of fourth 'thaw'.   elected first secretary of the      
         at Don Festival. Announces        Vainberg: Symphonies Nos. 7 and 8   Gorbatov: Years Off My Life       Central Committee.                  
         opera The Quiet Don (a            Ustvolskaya: Duet for violin and    (memoir) Sinyavsky ('Abraham                                          
         smokescreen for his other work,   piano Eshpay: Symphony No. 3        Tertz'): The Makepeace                                                
         finally abandoned in 1967).                                           Experiment (novel) Yutkevich:                                         
         May: Quartet No.9 in E, Op.117.                                       Lenin in Poland (film)                                                
         July: visits Armenia. Quartet                                         Kozintsev: Hamlet (film)                                              
         No. 10 in A, Op.118.                                                  Bondarchuk: War and Peace (film)                                      
         August-September: The Execution                                                                                                             
         of Stepan Razin (cantata),                                                                                                                  
         Op.119. November 20: premiere                                                                                                               
         of Ninth and Tenth Quartets in                                                                                                              
         Moscow. December 28: premiere                                                                                                               
         of Stepan Razin in Moscow.                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                     
1965     58-59. January: celebrates New    Tishchenko: Symphony No. 2; Piano   September: KGB seize manuscript   Purge of Ukrainian nationalists.    
         Year with Britten in Zhukhovka.   Sonata No. 3 Karayev: Symphony      of Solzhenitsyn's The First       March: unrest in universities       
         January: hospitalised in          No. 3 Gubaydulina: Piano Sonata;    Circle. Daniel and Sinyavsky      leads to new crack-down on          
         neurological unit. February: to   Etudes Schnittke: Dialogues         arrested. Panic in the literary   dissidents. May: at Central         
         Vienna for production of          Shchedrin: Symphony No. 2           underground: samizdat and         Committee plenum on agriculture,    
         Katerina Ismailova.               Silvestrov: Symphony No. 2          illegal emigré material hastily   Brezhnev acknowledges failure
of    
         March-April: to Bulgaria for      Denisov: Crescendo and Diminuendo   rehidden. October: Sholokhov      agricultural seven-year plan.       
         festival of Soviet music. April   Kabalevsky: Homeland (cantata);     awarded Nobel Prize.  Tarsis:     Reduction of compulsory farm        
         26: premiere of 5 Fragments,      Heroes of Gorlovka (symphonic       Ward Seven (study) Chukovskaya:   quotas to encourage production.     
         Op. 42 (1935) in Leningrad.       poem) Ivanovs: Symphony No. 11      The Deserted House (novel)        December: pro-constitution          
         Summer: convalescence and         Peiko: Symphony No. 4               Tarkovsky: Andrei Rublev (film)   demonstration in Pushkin Square.    
         holiday in Byelorussia. August:                                                                                                             
         death of Vasili Shirinsky.                                                                                                                  
         Autumn: film score A Year As                                                                                                                
         Long As A Lifetime, Op.120; 5                                                                                                               
         Romances on Texts from                                                                                                                      
         Krokodil, Op.121; work on film                                                                                                              
         of Katerina Ismailova. November                                                                                                             
         22: celebrates birthday of                                                                                                                  
         Britten, then visiting Russia.                                                                                                              
         December: to Budapest for                                                                                                                   
         production of Katerina                                                                                                                      
         Ismailova.