Year     Shostakovich: Life And Works      Contemporary Soviet Music           Contemporary Soviet Culture       Contemporary Soviet Life            
1946     39-40. January 26-August 2:       Prokofiev: Ivan the Terrible;       Pasternak begins Dr Zhivago.      March: Churchill's 'Iron Curtain'   
         Quartet No. 3 in F, Op.73.        Violin Sonata No. 1 Myaskovsky:     June: Pasternak and Akhmatova     speech at Fulton, Missouri. Cold    
         September 4: Simple Folk banned   Symphony No. 25 A. Khachaturian:    give recital in Moscow.           War begins. Uprisings in Gulag.     
         as 'unSoviet and anti-People'.    Cello Concerto Shebalin: Moscow     Ovations. August: Zhdanov         Autumn: beginning of campaign       
         September 25: Order of Lenin.     (cantata) Glier: Cello Concerto     attacks Akhmatova and             against 'kowtowing to the West'.    
         December 16: Third Quartet        Vainberg: Symphony No. 2 for        Zoshchenko for 'reactionary       November: Stalin excludes Jews      
         premiered in Moscow.              strings Karayev: Symphony No. 2;    individualism'. They are          from Party and government           
                                           Quartet No. 2 Koval: Defenders of   expelled from the Writers'        apparat. December: Russia builds    
                                           Sevastopol (opera) Knipper:         Union. September: Zhdanov         its first nuclear reactor.          
                                           Symphony No. 10 (Scenes from the    attacks Pudovkin and                                                  
                                           Great Patriotic War) Peiko:         Eisenstein. First public                                              
                                           Symphony No. 2 Popov: Symphony      campaign against Jewish                                               
                                           No. 3 for strings Zhelobinsky:      'cultural nationalism'. Culture                                       
                                           Symphony No. 6 Ustvolskaya:         and Life - new Party magazine                                         
                                           Concerto for piano, strings, and    extolling Russian nationalist                                         
                                           timpani; Cello Sonata Tubin:        virtues and maligning Soviet                                          
                                           Symphony No. 5                      minorities, especially the                                            
                                                                               Jews.  Eisenstein: Ivan the                                           
                                                                               Terrible Pt.2 (film, not                                              
                                                                               released till 1958)                                                   
1947     40-41. February: elected          Prokofiev: Symphony No. 6; War      Spate of publications claiming    The post-war freeze intensifies.    
         chairman of Leningrad             and Peace (Part 2); Thirty Years    all inventions credited to        Beginning of the Zhdanovschina.     
         Composers' Union. May: attends    ('Festive Poem') Myaskovsky:        Westerners actually made by       Winter-Spring: severe famine in     
         Prague Festival. Summer:          Quartet No. 12; Violin Sonata;      obscure Russians. March:          the Ukraine and southern USSR.      
         elected Leningrad deputy to       The Kremlin at Night (cantata) A.   Pasternak, Gladkov, and Olga      September: founding of Cominform.   
         Supreme Soviet of RSFSR; Poem     Khachaturian: Symphony No. 3        Berggolts publically              November-December: drive against    
         of the Motherland (cantata),      Kabalevsky: The Taras Family        criticised. June: Zhdanov         foreigners and those 'associated'   
         Op.74; film score Pirogov,        (opera) Shebalin: Piano Trio B.     attacks philosophers. December:   with them. December: Beria's        
         Op.76 Autumn: begins The Young    Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1         Zhdanov begins witch-hunt of      agents arrest several leading       
         Guard; 3 Pieces for orchestra     Mosolov: Symphony No. 5             non-Lysenko biologists.           members of the Jewish               
         (ms. only). October: begins       Ustvolskaya: Piano Sonata No. 1     Ehrenburg: The Storm (novel)      Anti-Fascist Committee.             
         First Violin Concerto.                                                Yutkevich: Light Over Russia                                          
                                                                               (film, banned)                                                        
1948     41-42. January 13: Zhdanov        Prokofiev: The Story of a Real      Gladkov arrested. January 12:     Mass-arrests for 'spying',          
         opens the First Congress of the   Man (opera) Myaskovsky: Symphony    leading Jewish actor Solomon      'revealing state secrets',          
         Composers' Union in Moscow.       No. 26 Shcherbachov: Symphony No.   Mikhoels murdered in Minsk by     'kowtowing to the West',            
         That evening, friends of the      5 (Russian) K. Khachaturian:        Stalin's agents. September:       'praising American technology'      
         Solomon Mikhoels gather to        Blossom and Prosper, Youth          Anti-Fascist League dissolved.    and so forth. Re-arrests of those   
         lament his death. S. attends.     (cantata) Shebalin: Quartet No. 7   Jewish newspapers closed.         given ten-year sentences in         
         Natalya Vovsi-Mikhoels recalls:   Knipper: On Lake Baikal (opera)     Yiddish writers arrested.         1937-8 (the 'repeaters'). Arrests   
         'Shostakovich spoke of how        Kabalevsky: Violin Concerto         Fedin: No Ordinary Summer         also of children of those in the    
         "this" had started with the       Levitin: Symphony No. 1 (Youth)     (novel) Azhayev: Far From         Gulag. August: Lysenko enforces     
         Jews but would end with the                                           Moscow (novel)                    'Michurinism' over genetics at      
         entire intelligentsia.'                                                                                 Soviet Congress of Agricultural     
         February 10: Resolution 'On the                                                                         Sciences. August 31: Death of       
         Opera The Great Friendship by                                                                           Zhdanov. October: 'The Great        
         V. Muradeli': Shostakovich,                                                                             Stalinist Plan for Remaking         
         Prokofiev, Myaskovsky, Popov,                                                                           Nature' - 15-year scheme to         
         Khachaturian, and Shebalin                                                                              change climate in Central Asia by   
         condemned as 'formalists'. S.                                                                           planting new forests. (Abandoned    
         demoted in Composers' Union.                                                                            in 1953.)                           
         March: finishes Violin Concerto                                                                                                             
         No. 1 in A minor, Op.77;                                                                                                                    
         cantata Rayok; film score The                                                                                                               
         Young Guards, Op.75. Summer:                                                                                                                
         film score Michurin, Op.78;                                                                                                                 
         From Jewish Folk Poetry, Op.79.                                                                                                             
         Autumn: film score Meeting on                                                                                                               
         the Elbe, Op.80. S. sacked from                                                                                                             
         his teaching posts. October:                                                                                                                
         People's Artist of the RSFSR.                                                                                                               
1949     42-43. February: Khrennikov       Prokofiev: The Stone Flower         Akhmatova's son Lev Gumilov       Anti-Semitism becomes open in the   
         leads attacks on 'formalist'      (ballet); Cello Sonata              arrested for the third time and   USSR: the campaign against          
         critics and musicologists         Myaskovsky: Symphony No. 27;        sent to the camps. Pasternak's    'rootless cosmopolitanism'.         
         (especially those friendly to     Viola Sonata; Piano Sonatas Nos.    mistress Olga Ivinskaya           January: Komsomol Pravda claims     
         S.). March: to New York with      7-9; Quartet No. 13 Vainberg:       deported to Siberia. January:     the aeroplane a Russian             
         Soviet Committee for the          Symphony No. 3 Taktakishvili:       Pravda attacks 'anti-             invention. Spring: show-trial and   
         Defence of Peace. Plays scherzo   Symphony No. 1 (Youth) Knipper:     patriotic' (Jewish) theatre       sensational 'confession' of         
         from Fifth Symphony at Madison    Symphony No. 11; Source of Life     critics. February: Ehrenburg      Cardinal Mindszenty in Hungary.     
         Square Garden. Summer: Song of    (opera) Glier: The Bronze           banned from publication (as a     (He had been tortured.)             
         the Forests (oratorio), Op.81;    Horseman (ballet) Kabalevsky:       Jew).                             September: first Soviet A-bomb      
         film score The Fall of Berlin,    Cello Concerto No. 1 Popov:                                           tested. Winter: the 'Leningrad      
         Op.82; Quartet No. 4 in D,        Symphony No. 4 Ustvolskaya:                                           Affair'. Beria and Malenkov         
         Op.83.                            Clarinet Trio: Piano Sonata No. 2                                     liquidate Zhdanov's clique in the   
                                           Ivanovs: Symphony No. 6 Svidirov:                                     Party. Hundreds shot.               
                                           Symphony No. 2 (unfinished)                                                                               
1950     43-44. Spring: to Warsaw for      Prokofiev: On Guard for Peace       Akhmatova writes conformist       Camp revolts provoke                
         Second World Peace Congress.      (oratorio) Mosolov: Symphony No.    cycle Glory To Peace, praising    mass-executions in the Gulag.       
         July: Bach bicentenary in         6; Kubanskaya Sviridov: Land of     Stalin, in hope of getting her    Many political show-trials in       
         Leipzig. August: 2 Lermontov      My Fathers Karetnikov: Symphony     son released from the Gulag.      Eastern Europe.                     
         Songs, Op.84; film score          No. 1 Knipper: Symphony No. 12      She fails. Summer: repression                                         
         Belinsky, Op.85. Starts giving    Ustvolskaya: Octet                  of 'perfidious Zionism' in                                            
         recitals to earn money. October                                       Soviet biology.                                                       
         10: begins 24 Preludes and                                                                                                                  
1951     44-45. February 25: finishes 24   Prokofiev: The Volga Meets the      Ehrenburg: The Ninth Wave         More show-trials in Eastern         
         Preludes and Fugues for pf,       Don ('festive poem') Shebalin:      (novel) Fadeyev: The Young        Europe. Revolts in the Gulag        
         Op.87. Spring: tours Baltic       Sinfonietta on Russian Themes       Guard (novel, second version)     continue.                           
         states, giving recitals.          Shchedrin: Collective Farm                                                                                
         Summer: 4 Dolmatovsky Songs,      Holiday Lyatoshinsky: Symphony                                                                            
         Op.86; 10 Poems on                No. 3                                                                                                     
         Revolutionary Texts for chorus,                                                                                                             
         Op.88; film score The                                                                                                                       
         Unforgettable Year 1919, Op.89.                                                                                                             
         October 10: 10 Poems premiered                                                                                                              
         in Moscow.                                                                                                                                  
1952     45-46. Spring: The Sun Shines     Prokofiev: Symphony-Concerto;       Climax of 'Lysenkoist' attack     Execution of members of the         
         Over Our Motherland (cantata),    Symphony No. 7 A. Khachaturian:     on legitimate science: denial     Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee       
         Op.90; 4 Pushkin Monologues,      Battle for Stalingrad (suite)       of Theory of Relativity           (arrested in 1948). Stalin, now     
         Op.91. Tours Transcaucasus,       Glier: Taras Bulba (ballet)         ('reactionary Einsteinism').      paranoid, is increasingly           
         giving recitals. April: to East   Knipper: Symphony No. 13 (In        April: literary scene so dead     obsessed with imaginary             
         Germany for Beethoven Festival.   memoriam Myaskovsky); Cello         that Pravda calls for new         conspiracies. October: the 19th     
         September 7-November 1: Quartet   Concerto Kabalevsky: Piano          Soviet Gogols and                 Party Congress. Stalin              
         No. 5 in B flat, Op.92.           Concerto No. 3 Karayev: Seven       Saltykov-Shchedrins to revive     re-organises the Party in           
         November: 7 Dances of the         Beauties (ballet) Volkonsky: Dead   social satire so as to            preparation for a major purge.      
         Dolls. December: attends Vienna   Souls; The Vision of the World      illuminate shortcomings of                                            
         Peace Congress. December 23/28:   (cantatas) Ustvolskaya: Piano       Soviet society. Few writers                                           
         Tatiana Nikolayeva premieres 24   Sonata No. 3; Violin Sonata         take the bait. Those who do are                                       
         Preludes and Fugues (1950-51)     Salmanov: Symphony No. 1            attacked for 'anti-patriotic                                          
         in Leningrad.                                                         slander' and arrested.                                                
1953     46-47. June 4: premiere of film   Shaporin: The Decembrists (opera)   Pasternak finishes Dr Zhivago.    January. 'Vigilance' campaign.      
         Belinsky (1950). July-October     A. Khachaturian: The Widow of       November: Pravda advocates a      The 'Doctors' Plot' (intended       
         25: Symphony No.10 in E minor,    Valencia (suite) Volkonsky:         'broad-minded' view on            beginning of new era of mass        
         Op.93. November 13: Fifth         Concerto for Orchestra              Socialist Realism. Beginning of   terror). March 5: Stalin dies.      
         Quartet premiered in Moscow.      Taktakishvili: Symphony No. 2       the first 'thaw'. December:       Succeeded by a triumvirate of       
         December 3: Fourth Quartet        Ivanovs: Symphony No. 7             Pomerantsev's 'On Sincerity in    Malenkov, Beria, and Molotov.       
         premiered in Moscow. December:    Ustvolskaya: 12 Preludes            Literature' published in Novy     Power-struggle begins. April:       
         Concertino for 2 pfs, Op. 94.                                         Mir. (Seminal essay deploring     'Doctors' Plot' described as a      
         December 17: Tenth Symphony                                           Socialist Realist 'prettifying'   'provocation' and discredited.      
         premiered in Leningrad. Initial                                       of reality.)  Leonov: The         June: anti-Stalinist                
         response mixed. Discussions                                           Russian Forest (novel)            demonstrations in Czechoslovakia.   
         convened to 'determine' whether                                       Yevtushenko: Winter Station       Unrest in Hungary. Uprising in      
         it is failure or success.                                             (poem)                            East Berlin put down by Soviet      
                                                                                                                 tanks (500 killed). July:           
                                                                                                                 Khrushchev replaces Beria.          
                                                                                                                 August: first Soviet H-bomb         
                                                                                                                 tested. December: Beria executed.   
1954     47-48. January 20: Concertino     A. Khachaturian: Spartacus          Short Philosophic Dictionary      Removal and execution of top        
         premiered in Moscow. March        (ballet) Shchedrin: Piano           condemns 'the reactionary         Soviet security figures. Secret     
         29-30: angry debates about        Concerto No. 1 Knipper: Symphony    pseudo-science of cybernetics'.   service (MGB/MVD) reformed as the   
         Tenth Symphony in Composers'      No. 14 Volkonsky: Capriccio         March: Ehrenburg's novel The      KGB. April: major Gulag revolt in   
         Union. April: incidental music    Kabalevsky: Symphony No. 4 Tubin:   Thaw is published. December:      Central Asia - the 'Forty Days of   
         for Kozintsev's Hamlet. Summer:   Symphony No. 6                      Tvardovsky sacked from Novy Mir   Kengir'. Rebellion crushed by       
         film score Seven Rivers, Op.                                          for publishing Pomerantsev (see   tanks.                              
         95. Autumn: Festive Overture,                                         1953). First 'thaw' ends.                                             
         Op.96 (for 37th anniversary of                                        S.Vasiliev: The Heroes of                                             
         October). October: People's                                           Shipka (film)                                                         
         Artist of the USSR. December 5:                                                                                                             
         death of Nina. She is buried in                                                                                                             
         Moscow to music from the Eighth                                                                                                             
1955     48-49. January 15: premiere of    Kabalevsky: Nikita Vershinin        Mayakovsky's The Bedbug is        'Virgin lands' scheme to open up    
         From Jewish Folk Poetry (1948)    (opera) K. Khachaturian: Symphony   produced for the first time       Kazakhstan, Siberia, and the        
         in Moscow. Spring: film score     No. 1 Volkonsky: Piano Quintet      since 1929: a great success.      Urals. Campaign for 'closer ties    
         The Gadfly, Op. 97; 5             Sviridov: Burns Songs Denisov:      Yutkevich: Othello (film)         with real life': everyone (except   
         Dolmatovsky Romances (Songs Of    Symphony in C Karetnikov:                                             senior politicians) to do some      
         Our Days), Op.98. March: begins   Symphony No. 2 Ustvolskaya:                                           menial work. February: Malenkov     
         revising Lady Macbeth (as         Symphony No. 1                                                        is manoeuvred into resignation      
         Katerina Ismailova). May: S.                                                                            and replaced by Bulganin. May:      
         'auditions' his Preludes and                                                                            formation of the Warsaw Pact.       
         Fugues at the Composers' Union.                                                                                                             
         The work is severely                                                                                                                        
         criticised. Summer: S. looks                                                                                                                
         after his mother at Komarovo,                                                                                                               
         composing little. October 29:                                                                                                               
         premiere of First Violin                                                                                                                    
         Concerto (1947-8) in Leningrad                                                                                                              
         (soloist: David Oistrakh).                                                                                                                  
         November 9: S.'s mother dies.                                                                                                               
         December: begins The First