Year     Shostakovich: Life And Works      Contemporary Soviet Music           Contemporary Soviet Culture       Contemporary Soviet Life            
                                                                                                                                                     
1936     29-30. January 28: Pravda         Prokoviev: Romeo and Juliet;        Criticism of Shostakovich         The Terror continues. With          
         attacks Lady Macbeth. February    Peter and the Wolf Myaskovsky:      triggers a general wave of        millions disappearing,              
         6: Pravda attacks The Limpid      Symphony No. 16 A. Khachaturian:    attacks on culture. Gide,         demoralisation sets in and          
         Stream. February 10/13/15:        Piano Concerto Shebalin: Overture   visiting the USSR, condemns       society begins to atomise. June     
         'stormy debates' in Composers'    on Mari Themes Knipper: Symphony    intellectual slavery under        27: anti-abortion law and new       
         Union around the Pravda           No. 6 (Red Cavalry) Ivanovs:        Stalin. January: Pravda damns     family and marriage codes.          
         controversy. S. condemned as a    Symphony No. 2 (lost)               'unscientific historians', so     Summer: massive wave of arrests.    
         Formalist. May 20: finishes       Lyatoshinsky: Symphony No. 2        endorsing the trend towards       August 19-24: show-trial of the     
         Symphony No. 4 in C minor,                                            falsification of the past.        so-called 'United Centre'           
         Op.43. May 30: daughter Galya                                         February: Bulgakov's Molière,     (Zinoviev, Kamenev, and 14          
         born. October-November:                                               first banned in 1930, taken off   'accomplices') for murder of        
         incidental music for                                                  after seven nights at the         Kirov and planned murder of         
         Afinogenov's Salute to Spain,                                         Moscow Arts Theatre. Pravda       Stalin. Mass-hysteria surrounds     
         Op.44 (play banned soon after                                         criticizes 'cacophany' in         the proceedings; papers are full    
         opening in Moscow). December:                                         architecture. March: Pravda       of letters demanding                
         film of Tale Of A Priest                                              castigates artistic 'daubers'     death-penalty for 'these Gestapo    
         stopped in production. S.                                             and theatrical 'glitter'. June:   agents'. All shot. September:       
         ordered to withdraw Fourth                                            Gorky dies (or is murdered).      Yagoda arrested for being 'four     
         Symphony from rehearsal.                                              August: Pravda declares           years late' in uncovering the       
                                                                               Serebryakova and Pilnyak          'Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc'. He   
                                                                               enemies of the people.            is replaced by Yezhov.              
                                                                               Katayev: Lonely White Sail                                            
                                                                               (novel)                                                               
                                                                                                                                                     
1937     30-31. Winter: film score         Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th     Cultural purge continues.         Apex of the Terror. Five million    
         Maxim's Return, Op.45. January:   Anniversary of the Revolution       Dovzhenko and Eisenstein          deported, half a million shot.      
         4 Pushkin Romances, Op.46 and     Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 17      reprimanded. Meyerhold            Stalin calls for 'intensified       
         film score Volochayevsk Days,     and 18; Quartet No. 4 A.            vilified. 100 films stopped in    struggle' against the 'enemies of   
         Op.48. Spring: Leningrad          Khachaturian: Song of Stalin        production. Half the latest       the People'. Pravda accuses         
         Conservatory invites S. to give   (cantata) Dzerzhinsky: Virgin       plays taken off and 20 theatres   Yagoda of having run the            
         tutorials in composition and      Soil Upturned (opera) Chishko:      closed. January: at the end of    labour-camps 'like                  
         orchestration. April-July:        Battleship Potemkin (opera)         his tether, Mandelstam writes     health-resorts'. January 23-30:     
         Symphony No. 5 in D minor,        Ivanovs: Symphony No. 3 Knipper:    conformist Ode to Stalin. His     second Moscow show-trial (of        
         Op.47. Autumn: drafts operetta    Symphony No. 7 (War) Sviridov:      gesture ignored. February:        Pyatakov, Radek, and their          
         The Twelve Chairs (scrapped       Symphony No. 1 Tubin: Symphony      Eugenia Ginzburg arrested.        'accomplices'). 13 shot. April:     
         1938). November 21: Fifth         No. 2                               Romm: Lenin in October (film)     end of Second Five-Year Plan.       
         Symphony premiered in                                                 Bulgakov: Black Snow (novel,      June: arrest of Tukhachevsky and    
         Leningrad. Great success.                                             unpublished till 1965)            80,000 senior military. Many        
                                                                               Mandelstam: Second and Third      tortured and executed without       
                                                                               Voronezh Notebooks (unpublished)  trial.                              
                                                                                                                                                     
1938     31-32. January 29: Fifth          Prokofiev: Cello Concerto No. 1;    Cultural purge continues.         Wholesale massacre of officials     
         Symphony premiered in Moscow.     Alexander Nevsky Myaskovsky:        Olesha, Mandelstam, and           in every walk of life (and          
         March: Toscanini gives US         Violin Concerto Shaporin: The       Zabolotsky imprisoned. Kirshon    increasingly of security forces     
         premiere of Fifth Symphony in     Field of Kolikovo (cantata)         'disappears'. Bulgakov finishes   too). March: show-trial of          
         New York. April: begins choral    Kabalevsky: Colas Breugnon          The Master and Margarita          so-called 'Right-Trotskyite         
         'Lenin' symphony (never           (opera) Knipper: Symphony No. 7     (unpublished till 1966).          Centre' (Rykov, Bukharin, Yagoda,   
         finished). May 10: son Maxim      (Military); Marya (opera)           January: Meyerhold Theatre        and others). All shot. September:   
         born. May-July: Quartet No. 1     Zhelobinsky: Mother (opera)         closed. March: second arrest of   Stalin's History of the Communist   
         in C, Op.49. Autumn: Suite for    Shebalin: Quartet No. 3             Akhmatova's son Lev Gumilov       Party of the Soviet Union: Short    
         Danceband No. 2 and film score                                        (see 1935). April 21: Boris       Course. December: Yezhov replaced   
         s Friends, Op.51, The Great                                           Pilnyak shot. December:           by Beria. The Terror abates.        
         Citizen (Part 1), Op.52, The                                          Mandelstam dies in transit camp                                       
         Man With A Gun, Op.53, and The                                        near Vladivostock.  Eisenstein:                                       
         Vyborg Side, Op.50.                                                   Alexander Nevsky (film)                                               
                                                                               Gerasimov: Komsomolsk (film)                                          
                                                                               Donskoi: Childhood of Gorky                                           
                                                                               (film)                                                                
                                                                                                                                                     
1939     32-33. February: film score The   Prokofiev: Semyon Kotko (opera);    Cultural purge eases. Tretyakov   Mass-arrests cease. Around seven    
         Great Citizen (Part 2), Op.55.    Hail to Stalin (cantata)            shot. Kornilov 'disappears'.      million arrested since 1936. The    
         March: film score The Silly       Myaskovsky: Symphony No. 19;        Akhmatova begins Requiem. May     Terror blamed on the Trotskyites.   
         Little Mouse, Op.56 (lost).       Quartet No. 5; Salutation           16: Babel arrested. June:         January: Yezhov arrested and        
         April: begins Sixth Symphony.     Overture Khrennikov: Into the       Meyerhold arrested, tortured.     charged with trying to kill         
         May 23: confirmed as professor    Storm (opera) A. Khachaturian:      Tsvetayeva returns to Russia.     Stalin. May: Molotov replaces       
         at Leningrad Conservatoire.       Happiness (ballet) Mosolov:         September: Tsvetayeva's husband   Litvinov. August: Russia and Nazi   
         October: finishes Symphony No.    Symphony No. 3 Zhelobinsky:         and daughter arrested.            Germany sign non-aggression pact.   
         6 in B minor, Op.54. November     Symphony No. 3 Ivanovs: Rainbow     Dovzhenko: Shchors (film)         September: joint Nazi-Soviet        
         5: Sixth Symphony premiered in    (poem for orchestra)                Gerasimov: Uchitel (film) Romm:   invasion of Poland. November:       
         Leningrad. Begins                                                     Lenin in 1918 (film) Donskoi:     Russia invades Finland. December:   
         re-orchestration of Boris                                             My Apprenticeships (film)         Russia expelled from the League     
         Godunov. December: elected to                                                                           of Nations.                         
         Leningrad city soviet.                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                     
1940     33-34. Continues work on Boris    Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 20      Pasternak translates Hamlet and   February: Nazi-Soviet trade         
         Godunov, Op.58 No.1, finishing    and 21; Quartet No. 6 Prokofiev:    Sonnet 66. January 27: Babel      agreement. Russia supplies          
         score in June. May 20: Order of   Piano Sonata No. 6 A.               shot. February 2: Meyerhold       Germany with food and raw           
         the Red Banner of Labour (for     Khachaturian: Violin Concerto       shot. March 10: Bulgakov dies.    materials. February 4: Yezhov       
         film work). July-September:       Kabalevsky: The Comedians (suite)   March: Akhmatova completes        shot. March 12: Finland's small     
         Piano Quintet in G minor,         Shebalin: Violin Concerto;          Requiem (published in Russia in   reservist force surrenders,         
         Op.57. Autumn: incidental music   Quartet No. 4 Dzerzhinsky: The      1987).  Sholokhov: The Don        having inflicted half a million     
         for King Lear, Op.58 No.2, 3      Storm (opera) Polovinkin:           Flows Home To The Sea (novel)     casualties on ill-led Red Army      
         Pieces for violin, and film       Symphony No. 5 Sviridov: Symphony   Zoshchenko: The Poker (story)     three times its size. April: NKVD   
         score The Adventures of           for Strings                         Kuleshov: Siberians (film)        massacre 15,000 Polish POWs in      
         Korzinkina, Op.59. Opera                                              Donskoi: My Universities (film)   Katyn forest. August: Russia        
         Katyusha Maslova begun and                                            Yutkevich: Yakov Sverdlov (film)  annexes Lithuania, Latvia, and      
         abandoned. November 23: Piano                                                                           Estonia. August 20: Trotsky         
         Quintet premiered in Moscow.                                                                            assassinated by Soviet agent in     
         Great success.                                                                                          Mexico.                             
                                                                                                                                                     
1941     34-35. March: King Lear           Prokofiev: The Year 1941 (suite);   August: Tsvetayeva hangs          Stalin ignores warnings that        
         premiered in Leningrad.           Betrothal in a Monastery (opera);   herself. September: Akhmatova's   Hitler about to attack USSR. June   
         Success. April: tours, playing    Quartet No. 2 Myaskovsky:           radio speech to the women of      22: Germany invades Russia. June    
         Piano Quintet and First Piano     Symphonies Nos. 22 and 23;          Leningrad. October: Akhmatova     28: fall of Minsk. July 3: Stalin   
         Concerto. May: Piano Quintet      Quartet No. 7 Kabalevsky: Parade    and Lydia Chukovskaya evacuated   appeals to Russian people to        
         wins Stalin Prize, First Grade.   of Youth (cantata) Dzerzhinsky:     to Tashkent, there joining        defend the Motherland. July 19:     
         Sixth Symphony attacked at        Blood of the People (opera)         Nadezhda Mandelstam. November:    fall of Smolensk. August:           
         meeting of Composers' Union in    Ivanovs: Symphony No. 4             Vera Inber notes in her diary     development of the 'Kiev pocket'.   
         Leningrad. July 12-14: Vow of                                         that people of Leningrad          September 19: fall of Kiev.         
         the People's Commissar; 27                                            reduced to eating their pets.     September-October: German drive     
         arrangements for frontline                                            Fadeyev: Last of the Udege        on Moscow. Battle of Vyazma -       
         ensembles (Beethoven, Bizet,                                          (novel) Borodin: Dmitri Donskoi   Soviet armies defeated. Leningrad   
         Dargomyzhsky, etc). July 15th:                                        (novel) A.Tolstoi: Ivan the       besieged. German advance slows      
         The Fearless Regiments Are On                                         Terrible Part I (play)            down. December: German patrols in   
         The Move (song). September 17:                                        Pudovkin: General Suvarov         sight of Moscow. Russians defend    
         S. broadcasts to citizens of                                          (film) Gerasimov/Kalatozov: The   as the city is evacuated. German    
         Leningrad. October 2: S. and                                          Invincible (film)                 advance halts in -40deg.F           
         family flown out to Moscow.                                                                             temperatures. December 5-6:         
         October 15-22: in transit by                                                                            Russians attack in front of         
         train to Kuibyshev. December                                                                            Moscow, driving Germans back. Red   
         27: finishes Symphony No. 7 in                                                                          Army losses for 1941: three         
         C, Op.60 ('To the City of                                                                               million (half of them prisoners).   
         Leningrad'). December 28:                                                                                                                   
         begins The Gamblers (opera).                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                     
1942     35-36. March 5: Seventh           Prokofiev: Piano Sonata No. 7 A.    August: an agitprop memorandum    January-February: NKVD renamed      
         Symphony premiered in             Khachaturian: Gayane (ballet)       to the Central Committee claims   NKGB under Beria. Russian           
         Kuibyshev. March 29: Seventh      Myaskovsky: Quartet No. 8           that Soviet culture is            counter-offensive pushes German     
         Symphony premiered in Moscow.     Shebalin: Quartet No. 5             'unacceptably clogged' by Jews    line back everywhere except         
         May: begins English Poets.        (Slavonic) Kabalevsky: The Mighty   - an encoded directive to the     around Leningrad. March-May:        
         Summer: visits Sollertinsky in    Homeland; The People's Avengers     apparat to begin an               Russians halt. Stalemate. April:    
         Novosibirsk. August 9:            (cantatas) Karayev: Quartet No. 1   anti-Semitic campaign in the      end of Third Five-Year Plan.        
         Leningrad premiere of Seventh     Koval: Emelyan Pugachov (opera);    arts.  Inber: The Pulkovo         May-June: Germans begin new         
         Symphony. August: Native          National Holy War (oratorio)        Meridian (poem) Ehrenburg: The    attack. Russians defeated at        
         Leningrad, Op.63, and Solemn      Vainberg: Symphony No. 1            Fall of Paris (novel) Leonov:     Kharkov. Fall of Sevastopol.        
         March for military band.          Khrennikov: Symphony No. 2          Invasion (play) S./G.Vasiliev:    June-July: German summer            
         October: Honoured Artist of the   Mosolov: Symphony No. 4             Defence of Tsaritsin (film)       offensive. Fall of Voronezh.        
         RSFSR October 25: finishes 6      Polovinkin: Symphony No. 6          Donskoi: How the Steel Was        July-August: Germans break          
         Romances on Verses by English     Zhelobinsky: Symphony No. 4         Tempered (film)                   through and advance on              
         Poets, Op.62. December:           Tubin: Symphony No. 3                                                 Stalingrad. August-December:        
         abandons The Gamblers. Falls                                                                            Battle of Stalingrad. German army   
         ill with gastric typhoid.                                                                               enclosed.                           
                                                                                                                                                     
1943     36-37. January 11: still ill,     Prokofiev: War and Peace (Pt.1);    May: Yakov Grinberg of the        January 12-18: partial lifting of   
         begins Second Piano Sonata.       Ballad of an Unknown Boy            Moscow Arts Department writes     siege of Leningrad. 630,000 of      
         March 18: finishes Piano Sonata   (cantata) Myaskovsky: Symphony      to Stalin, deploring 'the murky   the city's occupants have starved   
         No. 2 in B minor, Op.61, in a     No. 24; Quartet No. 9 Shebalin:     wave of repulsive                 to death since the end of 1941.     
         sanatorium near Moscow. April:    Quartet No. 6 Zhivotov: Happiness   anti-semitism' sweeping Russia:   February 2: Germans surrender at    
         moves to Moscow with Nina.        (song-cycle) Knipper: Symphony      'It is becoming unbearable! It    Stalingrad. Start of Russian        
         Children remain in Kuibyshev.     No. 8; Violin Concerto Karayev:     is no longer random, it is        winter offensive. February-March:   
         May: 8 British and American       Symphony No. 1 Glier: Coloratura    planned. Once again the           attack and counter-attack.          
         Folksongs. July 1: begins         Concerto A. Khachaturian:           terrible Jewish question has      Manstein checks the Russian         
         Eighth Symphony. August: Song     Symphony No. 2 Polovinkin:          arisen.'  Zoshchenko: Before      advance. March-June: lull during    
         of the Red Army (with             Symphonies Nos. 7 and 8 Popov:      Sunrise (autobiography) A.        the thaw. July-August: world's      
         Khachaturian for National         Symphony No. 2 (Motherland)         Tolstoy: The Way Through Hell     largest tank battle at Kursk.       
         Anthem competition). September    Tubin: Symphony No. 4               (novel); Ivan the Terrible Part   Germans defeated. July-November:    
         9: finishes Symphony No. 8 in C                                       II (play) Yutkevich: The Good     Russian offensive recaptures Kiev   
         minor, Op.65. November 4:                                             Soldier Schweik (film)            and Smolensk. November: Teheran     
         Moscow premiere of Eighth                                                                               conference.                         
         Symphony.                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
1944     37-38. February 15: hearing of    Prokofiev: Symphony No. 5; Violin   May: Akhmatova gives recital in   January 27: final liberation of     
         death of Sollertinsky, begins     Sonata No. 2; Piano Sonata No. 8;   Moscow. Standing ovation greets   Leningrad. February-June:           
         Second Piano Trio. April: the     Cinderella (ballet) Shaporin:       her appearance. Stalin demands    continuous fighting. June-July:     
         children join S. and Nina in      Battle for the Russian Land         to know who 'organised' the       Russian summer offensive breaks     
         Moscow. June: film score Zoya,    (cantata) Myaskovsky: Piano         applause.  Simonov: The Last      through at Smolensk. July 3:        
         Op.64. August 13: finishes        Sonatas Nos. 5 and 6 Zhivotov:      Summer (novel) Eisenstein: Ivan   recapture of Minsk. July-August:    
         Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor,      Songs Of Leningrad A.               the Terrible Pt.1 (film)          Red Army drives into Poland.        
         Op.67. September: Quartet No. 2   Khachaturian: Masquerade (suite)    Donskoi: Rainbow (film)           August-September: Warsaw            
         in A, Op. 68. November 14:        Balanchivadze: Symphony No. 1                                         uprising. Under Stalin's orders,    
         Moscow premiere of Second Piano   Knipper: Symphony No. 9                                               Russians hold off, allowing         
         Trio and Second Quartet.          Polovinkin: Symphony No. 9                                            Germans to crush the insurgents.    
         December 6: Children's Notebook   Zhelobinsky: Symphony No. 5                                           September-December: Russians        
         for pf, Op.69, and Russian                                                                              drive into Eastern Europe. Armed    
         River (spectacle), Op.66.                                                                               national resistance against them    
                                                                                                                 begins.                             
                                                                                                                                                     
1945     38-39. July-August: Symphony      Myaskovsky: Quartets Nos. 10 and    The apparat spreads               January-February: Russians enter    
         No. 9 in E , Op.70. November 3:   11; Cello Concerto; Sinfonietta     anti-semitic stories in the       Germany. February: Yalta            
         Ninth Symphony premiered in       No. 2 Prokofiev: Ode to the End     armed forces. Jews now referred   conference. April-May: final        
         Leningrad. December: film score   of the War Dzerzhinsky: Piano       to as 'cosmopolitans'.            attack on Berlin. May 2: fall of    
         Simple Folk, Op.71 and            Concerto No. 3 Kabalevsky:          Tvardovsky: Vasily Tyorkin        Berlin. May 8: Germans surrender.   
         incidental music for Victorious   Quartet No. 2 Sviridov: Piano       (poem) Fadeyev: The Young Guard   July-August: Potsdam conference.    
         Spring, Op.72.                    Trio Mosolov: Cello Concerto        (novel, first version)            September 3: end of World War Two.  
                                           Ivanovs: Symphony No. 5 Krein:      Zoshchenko: Adventures of a                                           
                                           Symphony No. 2 Peiko: Symphony      Monkey (story) Fedin: Early                                           
                                           No. 1                               Joys (novel)