Year Shostakovich: Life And Works Contemporary Soviet Music Contemporary Soviet Culture Contemporary Soviet Life 1926 19-20. April: recommended for Shcherbachov: Symphony No.2 (Blok) Zamyatin's We published in Height of NEP. Stalin inches higher degree course. May 12: Mosolov: Nocturnes; Quartet No.1; Prague. Zabolotsky founds quietly towards total power. premiere of Symphony No.1 in Blok Poems Dadaist Oberiu group in July: Zinoviev expelled from Leningrad. Great success. May Deshevov: The Rails Leningrad. October 2: Politburo. Kirov becomes 26: plays pf reduction of 1st Krein: Lenin Ode Mayakovsky demands legal Leningrad boss. Death of Symphony for Myaskovsky in Shaporin: Zamyatin Songs reprisals against Bulgakov's Dzerzhinsky, head of GPU. Moscow. Summer: during creative play The Days of the Turbins. (Replaced by Menzhinsky.) crisis, destroys juvenilia, Pudovkin: Mother (film) Babel: October: new legal code attacks incl. Fantasy for 2 pfs; In the Red Cavalry (stories) Katayev: 'bourgeois family'. October 23: Forest for pf; The Gipsies The Embezzlers (novel) Fadeyev: Trotsky and Kamenev expelled from (opera); Rusalochka (ballet); The Rout (novel) Mayakovsky: To Politburo. Revolutionary Symphony. Autumn: Esenin (poem) Tsvetayeva: Piano Sonata No. 1, Op.12. Rat-Catcher (poem) 1927 20-21. January 9: plays First Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 9 and Bulgakov's The Days of the Stalin creates 'war scare' to Piano Sonata in Moscow. January 10 Popov: Chamber Concerto Turbins and Olesha's novella cover his campaign against his 28-30: competes in First Zhivotov: Suite for Orchestra Envy the literary sensations of enemies. Great tension in the International Chopin Mosolov: Piano Concerto No. 1 the year. Berg's Wozzeck staged country. Summer: United Competition (Warsaw). Lev Glier: The Red Poppy (ballet) in Leningrad. Eisenstein: Opposition (Trotsky, Zinoviev, Oborin wins. February: to Knipper: Symphony No. 1 October (film) Pudovkin: The Kamenev) criticise Stalin in the Berlin. Meets Bruno Walter. Kabalevsky: 3 Poems of Blok End of St Petersburg (film) Central Committee. Autumn: Tours Poland. Returns to Shub: The Fall of the Romanovs protesting low prices, peasants Leningrad and meets Prokofiev. (film) Dovzhenko: Zvenigora hoard their grain. September: April: meets Sollertinsky. (film) Leonov: The Thief climax of political feud. Aphorisms for pf, Op.13. June: (novel) Pasternak: The Year Demonstrations in Moscow. Symphony No. 2 in B, Op.14 ('To 1905 (poem) Babel: Odessa November 12: Trotsky and Zinoviev October'). Becomes musical Stories; Sunset (play) expelled from the Party. director of TRAM. Begins The December: Zinoviev and Kamenev Nose. August: meets Nina banished to Kaluga. Stalin reigns Varzar. November 5: premiere of supreme. End of legal opposition; Second in Leningrad. November unification of Party and state. 22: Walter conducts First Symphony in Berlin. 1928 21-22. Spring: stays in Moscow Mosolov: Steel (ballet, including Summer: Central Committee January: Trotsky internally with Meyerhold as head of his The Iron Foundry); Symphony No. 1 resolution against creative exiled to Alma-Ata. Stalin visits music department. Writes Act II Zhivotov: Fragments for nonet 'backsliding'. Eisenstein and Siberia and orders 'extraordinary of The Nose. Returns to Shaporin: The Flea (suite) Pudovkin call for 'ideological measures' for seizing grain. Leningrad. May: finishes The Kabalevsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 dictatorship' in the cinema. May-July: Shakhty case (first Nose, Op.15. July: completes Polovinkin: Last Sonata The cultural revolution begins. show trial since 1922) of 53 post-graduate course. Autumn: Roslavets: October (cantata) Gorky returns to Russia. 'wreckers' from the Donbass. Tahiti Trot, Op.16; 2 Scarlatti December: Central Committee Press whips up hate campaign Pieces, Op.17; first three decrees Communist hegemony in against the accused. July: Japanese Romances (see 1932). art. RAPP ascendant in Comintern condemns Social November 2: Stokowski gives US literature. Pudovkin: Storm Democrats as 'social fascists'. premiere of First Symphony in Over Asia (film) Katayev: October 1: official beginning of New York. November 25: suite Squaring the Circle (play) Ilf 1st Five Year Plan. November: from The Nose performed in and Petrov: The Twelve Chairs food shortages again. Bread-cards Moscow. (novel) Erdman: The Suicide in Leningrad. (play) 1929 22-23. February: New Babylon, Myaskovsky: 3 Pieces, Op.32 January: Voronsky arrested. 'Super-industrialization' heralds Op.18 and The Bedbug, Op.19. Shebalin: Symphony No. 2 Knipper: May: Bulgakov's plays banned. Russia's new Iron Age. The latter causes a furious Symphony No. 1 Polovinkin: Propagation of religion becomes Collectivism is the watchword in scandal. March. Cinema Symphony No. 1 crime against state. Christians every sphere of Soviet life. orchestras refuse to play New hounded. Summer: leading 'Shockworkers' appear. January: Babylon. Score shelved till historians arrested. Autumn: Trotsky exiled from USSR. April: Marius Constant performs it in orchestrated campaign of Stalin announces Shakhtyites Paris in 1975. March: 2 pieces vilification against Zamyatin ('bourgeois wreckers') at work in for Dressel's Columbus, Op.23. and Pilnyak. They are forbidden all branches of industry - they May: announces engagement to publication and their works are must be 'rooted out'. Party Nina. June: attends First banned. December: proletarian purged. November: Stalin defeats All-Russian Musical Conference groups awarded supreme power right wing. Bukharin expelled in Leningrad. June 16: concert over Soviet culture. Mayakovsky from Politburo. December 21: performance of The Nose joins RAPP. Commisariat for extraordinary national provokes savage controversy. Enlightenment abolished. 'celebrations' of Stalin's 50th July: Symphony No. 3 in E flat, Eisenstein: The General Line birthday. Foundation of the 'cult Op.20 ('First Of May'). August: (film) Dovzhenko: Arsenal of personality'. December 27: End The Shot, Op.24 (lost). (film) Romanov: Comrade of NEP. Stalin announces 'total September: begins The Golden Kislyakov (novel) Pilnyak: collectivization' and Age. Mahogany (novel, banned) 'liquidation of the kulaks as a class'. 1930 23-24. January: controversial Knipper: The North Wind (opera) Height of Cultural Revolution. January-February: 6 million premieres of The Nose and Third Deshevov: Ice and Steel (opera) Stalin writes in Pravda, peasants expropriated. They Symphony in Leningrad. Myaskovsky: Quartets Nos. 1-3 demanding end to non-Bolshevik slaughter their livestock in February: finishes The Golden Kabalevsky: Poem of Struggle literature. Proletarians take protest and a drastic meat Age, Op.22. March: declines Zhelobinsky: Symphony No. 1 over universities and shortage ensues. March 2: commission from Bolshoi Theatre conservatories. Serapion Stalin's Dizzy with Success to write opera Battleship Brothers, Pereval, Oberiu, and temporarily halts Potemkin. April: Soil, Op.25 ACM repressed. All pre-1917 collectivisation. May: end to (lost). July: holiday on Black culture outlawed. March: trips abroad for Soviet citizens. Sea coast. Begins The Bolt. Mayakovsky's The Bathhouse a Russia's borders sealed. September: begins Alone. failure. He is howled down September: closed trial of October: begins work on during a recital at the House 'Famine Organizers' (agronomists libretto for Lady Macbeth. The of Komsomol. April 14: accused of wrecking meat Golden Age premiered in Mayakovsky shoots himself. industry). All shot. Leningrad. November: Gorky's If The Enemy November-December: show-trial of Does Not Surrender, He Must Be the 'Industrial Party' (group Destroyed. Kharkov Congress on accused of wrecking factories and Proletarian Art calls for an plotting to overthrow Stalin). end to 'individualism'. All shot. 1931 24-25. January: finishes The Shebalin: Lenin Symphony Under proletarian rule, Soviet Treason, wrecking, espionage Bolt, Op.27 and film score Shcherbachov: Symphony No. 3 art is battered into 'discovered' everywhere. Alone, Op.26. April: Rule, Knipper: Symphony No. 2 compliance. Babel adopts 'genre Persecution of technical Britannia!, Op.28. The Bolt Korchmarev: Symphony No. 2 of silence'. Pilnyak and Olesha intelligentsia superseded by premiered in Leningrad (October) Polovinkin Symphony No. conform. Nonconformist hounding of 'gold-hoarders'. (failure). Summer: film score 2 Mandelstam thrown out of Torture now institutionalized. Golden Mountains, Op.30 and Leningrad. Zamyatin writes to January: major Party purge revue Allegedly Murdered, Stalin asking permission to begins. March: show-trial of Op.31. S. pulls out of theatre emigrate; Gorky intercedes - 'All-Union Bureau of Mensheviks' contracts (including TRAM) and permission granted. Zamyatin (non-existent subversive party goes on holiday to the Black goes to Paris. Bulgakov's supposedly engaged in sabotaging Sea. October: Alone released. similar request denied. the planning sector). August: Becomes international hit, Afinogenov: Fear (play) bread-queues in every city. G. B. largely due to S.'s score. Shaginian: Hydrocentral (novel) Shaw, on flying visit, remarks November: finishes Act I of Leonov: Sot (novel) Ilf and 'there is no hunger in Russia'. Lady Macbeth. 4th Japanese Petrov: The Golden Calf (novel) September: beginning of ill-fated Romance. December 20: Olesha: A List of Assets (play) White Sea Canal project. October: interviewed by New York Times Stalin usurps control of Party in Leningrad. ideology and history. 1932 25-26. February: begins Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 11 Gorky advises Stalin to Last year of the 1st Five-Year symphony From Karl Marx To Our and 12 (Collective Farm) Mosolov: dissolve the proletarian Plan. Exhaustion and disillusion Own Days. March: finishes Act Piano Concerto No. 2 Dzerzhinsky: artistic organizations. Stalin set in (mood of rebellion similar II of Lady Macbeth. April: Piano Concerto No. 1 Zhivotov: orders private performance of to that of early 1921). February: finishes 6 Japanese Romances, West (choruses) Kabalevsky: Bulgakov's Days of the Turbins. Stalin introduces Op.21. Joins new Composers' Symphony No. 1 Knipper: Symphony Gorky leads 'brigade' of wage-differentials, condemning Union. Abandons Karl Marx. May No. 3 (To the Far Eastern Red writers on propaganda trip to equal pay as 'egalitarianism'. 13: marries Nina Varzar. May Army) Mosolov: Symphony No. 2 White Sea Canal. April 23: Summer: only Party protest is 19: premiere of Hamlet, Op.32, Polivinkin: Symphony No. 3 Central Committee resolution on from the 'Ryutin Platform'. at Vakhtangov Theatre, Moscow, (Romantic) Popov: Symphony No. 1 restructuring of creative Failing to move Politburo to have causes scandal. June: film Roslavets: Symphony No. 2 (Uzbek) groups. Preferential treatment protesters shot, Stalin score Counterplan, Op.33. Score Zhelobinsky: Symphony No. 2 offered to 'co-operative' intensifies purge. August: a popular success. August: Act artists. Proletarian death-penalty introduced for III of Lady Macbeth. December: organisations banned. May: damaging state property. finishes Lady Macbeth of launch of five-year plan for September: Pavlik Morozov Mtsensk District, Op.29. Begins the elimination of religion. declared a hero for denouncing 24 Preludes. Dovzhenko: A Simple Case (film) his father. December: Sholokhov: Virgin Soil Upturned introduction of internal (Pt.1) (novel) Katayev: Time, passports allows only townsfolk Forward! (novel) Leonov: to travel (peasants bound to Skutarevsky (novel) farms); prejudice against Soviet Jews is likewise institutionalised by this measure (the notorious 'Point 5'). 1933 26-27. March: finishes 24 Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 13 Nobel Prize for Literature Severe winter. Stalin continues Preludes for pf, Op.34. Begins and 14 Prokofiev: Symphonic Song; awarded to emigré novelist Ivan to export grain to raise foreign Tale of a Priest and His Lieutenant Kije Knipper: Symphony Bunin. Pasternak, appalled at currency. Famine in the Ukraine Servant Balda (see 1934) and No. 4 (Poem of the Fighting events in the USSR, stops kills seven million. Eight Piano Concerto No.1. April: The Komsomol) Shaporin: Symphony No. writing. August: Mandelstam's million more die during Age of Gold criticised in 1 Kabalevsky: Symphony No. 2 Journey to Armenia denounced by collectivization. January: end of Moscow press for frivolity. Khrennikov: Piano Concerto No. 1 Pravda. November: Mandelstam purge (one million victims since July: finishes Piano Concerto Polovinkin: Symphony No. 4 privately circulates his Poem 1931). Beginning of Second No.1 in C minor, Op.35. Autumn: Ivanovs: Symphony No. 1 (lost) About Stalin, which describes Five-Year Plan. March: show-trial preparations for staging of him as 'murderer and of Metro-Vickers 'spies'. April: Lady Macbeth. November: elected peasant-slayer'. Afinogenov: White Sea Canal finished (at cost deputy to Leningrad's The Lie (play) Pudovkin: of a hundred thousand lives). Oktyabrsky District soviet. Deserter (film) 1934 27-28. Winter: incidental music Myaskovsky: Symphonies Nos. 15 May 14: Mandelstam arrested. January: 17th Party Congress for The Human Comedy, Op.37. and 16 (Aviation) Dzerzhinsky: Pasternak and Akhmatova ('Congress of Victors'). Stalin January: Lady Macbeth premiered Piano Concerto No. 2 Shebalin: protest. He receives three declares all targets fulfilled in Leningrad and Moscow. Symphony No. 3; Quartet No. 2 years internal exile. August: and Socialism achieved. His cult Biggest success since First Kabalevsky: Symphony No. 3 (Lenin First Congress of Writers' now gargantuan. Radek eulogizes Symphony. February: Suite for Requiem) A. Khachaturian: Union. Mandelstam, Akhmatova, him as 'great chief of toilers... Danceband No.1. Summer: film Symphony No. 1 Koval: Pushkiniana Bulgakov, Platonov, and wisest of the wise'. Zinoviev, score Love and Hate, Op.38. Tubin: Symphony No. 1 Zabolotsky are excluded. Gorky Kamenev, and Bukharin are made to August-September: S. argues announces Socialist Realism as confess that Stalin always right. with Nina; temporarily they the new Soviet aesthetic. Sensing unease in the Party, separate. Cello Sonata in D Critic Viktor Shklovsky Stalin prepares to move against minor, Op.40. November: denounces Dostoyevsky as a it. July: GPU renamed NKVD under finishes Tale of a Priest and posthumous traitor to the Yagoda. December 1: Stalin His Servant Balda, Op.36. Revolution. Vertov: Three engineers murder of rival Kirov December: film score s Maxim's Songs Of Lenin (film) Pogodin: in Leningrad. Forty thousand Youth, Op.41 No.1 and Aristocrats (play) Sholokhov: Leningraders deported to Siberia Girlfriends, Op.41 No.2. And Quiet Flows The Don (novel) for conspiracy to assassinate. December 25: premiere of Cello Ostrovsky: How The Steel Was The Great Terror begins. Sonata in Leningrad. Tempered (novel) 1935 28-29. January: The Limpid Prokofiev: Violin Concerto No. 2 Stalin decrees that 'life has February: beginning of new purge Stream, Op.39. February 4-6: Shcherbachov: Symphony No. 4 become more joyful'. Optimism of the Party. Mass-arrests, angry debate on Soviet (Izhorsk) Shebalin: Symphony No. in art now compulsory. shootings and deportations. symphonism in Composers' Union. 4 (Heroes of Perekop) Zhivotov: Akhmatova's husband and son Gorky, arguing that Terror is April 3: S. defends Lady Kirov Elegy Khrennikov: Symphony arrested. CP sponsors campaign counter-productive, falls out of Macbeth against charges of No. 1 Koval: Tale of the Partisan against 'Meyerholdism'. July: favour with Stalin. Attempting to Formalism in Izvestia. April Kabalevsky: Piano Concerto No. 2 first gymnastic display in Red leave the country, he finds his 26: 5 Fragments, Op.42. June: Dzerzhinsky: Quiet Flows the Don Square, following Nazi model. visa withdrawn. May 1: huge The Limpid Stream premiered in (opera) Knipper: Symphony No. 5 December: Stalin declares intensification of the Leningrad. Success. September: Ippolitov-Ivanov: Symphony No. 2 Mayakovsky 'the best, the most Stalin-cult. Massive floral concert tour of Turkey. Begins Korchmarev: Symphony No. 3 talented'. The poet's cult pictures of him carried in Red Fourth Symphony. November: The Ivanovs: The Blue Lakes (suite) begins. Dovzhenko: Aerograd Square. New slogans portray him Limpid Stream premiered in (film) S./G.Vasiliev: Chapayev as 'good and kind', 'Beloved Moscow. December: new (film) Ermler: Peasants (film) Leader', 'the great humanist', production of Lady Macbeth Medvedkin: Grabbers (film) etc. August 30: shockworker A. opens in Moscow. Serebryakova: Marx's Youth Stakhanov overfulfills his norm (novel) Mandelstam: First by fifteen times (a publicity Voronezh Notebook (unpublished) stunt). Birth of the 'Stakhanovite' movement.