# Modules

## Outlining

MODULE B

OUTLINING

HINT SHEET

An outline is a formal plan for an essay showing, in skeleton fashion, the thesis, the major divisions of the paper, and the major points of evidence.

I. ORDER - The nature of order is important to the organization of ideas.

Some types of order:

A. General to Specific (deductive)

Begins with a general statement and supports it with specific examples.

Example - General statement: Specific

Taxes are growing higher every year. 1. Two years ago taxes were \$100.

2. Last year taxes were \$200.

3. This year taxes are \$300.

B. Specific to General (inductive)

Begins with specific examples and concludes with a general statement inferred from the examples.

Specific General

1. Two years ago doctors discovered a cure for disease X. Medical discoveries are enabling doctors to cure previously incurable diseases.

2. Last year doctors discovered a cure for disease Y.

3. This year doctors have found a cure for disease Z.

C. Spatial Order is used within essays to describe something concrete, or to show how things relate to one another in space.

D. Chronological Order is used to show how things relate to one another in time sequence.

II. Conventions of Outlining

List your major ideas (I, II, III, etc.), subordinate ideas (A, B, C, etc.), and even more subordinate ideas (1, 2, 3, etc.).

Example:

I. _________________________ (FIRST MAJOR IDEA)

A. ____________________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO I)

1. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO A)

2. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO A)

B. ____________________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO I)

1. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO B)

2. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO B)

II. _________________________ (SECOND MAJOR IDEA)

A. ____________________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO II)

1. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO A)

2. _______________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO A)

B. ____________________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO II)

C. ____________________ (SUBORDINATE IDEA TO II)

III. _________________________ (THIRD MAJOR IDEA)

III. Types of Outlines

A. Topic Outline - All points except the thesis are stated in phrases or single word topics.

B. Sentence Outline - All points are stated in complete sentences.