The Presidential Election of 1860
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Length: 2 Weeks Grade Level: 9-12 Group Size: 25-30 Date: 7-14-08
Summary: This lesson plan focuses on the election of 1860, but the activities are divided into three parts: pre-election, election, and post-election. It may be utilized as a unit lesson or each part independently. Part I analyzes selections of the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. An online visit is made to the Springfield home of Abraham Lincoln where he accepts the Republican Presidential nomination. Part II addresses the election including campaign strategies and a geographic analysis of the results. Part III explains the Electoral College, the outcome of the election of 1860 and discusses the legality of southern secession.
Part I: Pre-Election
Standards: The activities in this lesson plan may fulfill the requirements for the following Illinois State Learning Standards: 14.A.5, 14.D.4, 14.F.5, 16.D.4b (US), 16.A.4b, 16.B.5b (US), and 18.A.4.
Procedure & Activities:
1. Activity I – After reading selected pages of the 4th Lincoln-Douglas debate part I, students analyze this political speech and write down their answers. They identify the main topic of the speech and the speaker’s position, or stand on the issue. They analyze the persuasive technique the speaker uses. They study the speech for the clues about the historical period. Answers are discussed and shared. (Below grade level readers may achieve greater success if pages are read out loud by the instructor and/or the student.)
2. Activity II –Students receive “Monticello: The Home of Thomas Jefferson.” Students access both web sites containing information about the Lincoln Home and Monticello comparing and contrasting the two properties and their owners. (This web quest may take an hour depending on the processing speed of the computers.) Once completed, students are allowed to trade answers with each other, but only if the trade is mutually beneficial.
3. Activity III – Political cartoons from 1860 Presidential election may be accessed at the referenced web site. Students should analyze a minimum of 3 cartoons, choose one and answer the questions listed on the “Analyzing Political Cartoons” handout. Answers are discussed in class. Students create their own political cartoon based on a current Presidential candidate, or a current event.
Part II: The Election
Standards: The activities in this lesson may fulfill the requirements for the following Illinois State Learning Standards: 14.A.5, 14.C.4, 14.C.5, 16.A.4b, 16.D.4b (US), 17.A.4b, 17.C.5c, and18.A.5.
Procedure & Activities:
4. Activity I – Divide the class into four groups, assigning each a Presidential candidate from the 1860 election. Students must develop a political campaign for their candidate based on the candidate’s platform, including a slogan and a logo. The teacher should help students understand that the primary consideration for Presidential candidates in 1860 was how to win in a divided nation. This activity may take more than one class period. Students present their campaign material to the class. Students analyze each candidate’s campaign by content, visual representation and historical accuracy.
5. Activity II –Students access the map web site completing the answers to the questions, and color in their own map reflecting the 1860 election results. The results are discussed comparing the out come in free and slave states.
Part III: Post-Election
Standards: The activities in this lesson may fulfill the requirements for the following Illinois State Learning Standards: 14.A.4, 14.D.4, 14.F.4a, 16.A.4a, and16.B.4.
*A zine (pronounced "zeen") is most commonly a small circulation, non-commercial publication of original or appropriated texts and images (similar to a pamphlet.)
Procedure & Activities:
6. Activity I – Students visit the electoral college web site and go to the “frequently asked questions” page recording 10 “I learned” sentences. The information is discussed in relation to the 1860 election when a President was elected without any southern electoral votes. Students are divided into groups of 4-5 participants and analyze the information to identify the flaws in the Electoral College. Students develop a plan to address at least one of the flaws.
7. Activity II – An Augusta, Georgia a newspaper editor wrote “[The Republican Party] stands forth today, hideous, revolting, loathsome, a menace not only to the union of these states, but to Society, to Liberty, and to Law.” (From: America: Pathways to the Present. Prentice hall, 2003.) Drawing on information from previous activities, students write a newspaper editorial about the outcome of the 1860 election with emphasis on either a “Northern” or “Southern” perspective.
8. Activity III – Students read secession documents chosen by the instructor available on the referenced web site. The readings are discussed and the pros and cons of secession are visually listed by the instructor. Students choose a position and create a persuasive Zine including text and pictures. When completed, the Zines are displayed and available for classmates to read.
Closure: Students create a final project, which may be a power point presentation or a poster board, inspired by any of the topics or resources from this unit. It must include a minimum of ten facts, six pictures, and will be graded on accuracy of information, creativity and craftsmanship.
Monticello: The Home of Thomas Jefferson
Access the web site listed above to record information about Monticello. Use the brochure provided to record information about the Lincoln home. Be ready to discuss both properties.
How many acres made up this property?
What was the primary use of the property?
In which style was the main house constructed?
What was the time frame for development of this property?
Who lived here?
How many people have owned this building?
Name one fact of historical significance about this building.
Was this building restored or preserved?
What does this building tell us about the finances of their owners?
What types of materials were used in the construction of this building?
Analyzing Political Cartoons
Directions: In this activity, you will be reviewing a number of political cartoons either with a partner or individually.
1. Look carefully at all of the political cartons you are given examining the characters, the setting, any symbols and make a note of them.
2. Determine what the message and the humor is in the cartoon.
3. Select the cartoon you understand the best and find the most interesting.
4. Answer the questions below.
5. Be prepared to share your information with the class.
5. Do you agree or disagree with the cartoonist’s opinion? Why?
The Presidential Election of 1860
Subject: American History Time Required: 3 Days
· Students will be able to use online data-base to locate and use primary resources to learn more about individuals and past events in American history.
· Students will be able to label and interpret information using a map of the U.S.
· Students will have a better understanding of political parties.
· Students will be able to explain why Lincoln won the election of 1860.
· Students will have a better understanding of why the North and South were divided over the issue of slavery.
· Students will be able to list the difference in Lincoln and Douglas’ characteristics at the 1958 Debate.
· Students will have a better understanding of why the Lincoln-Douglas debates over slavery in territories propelled Lincoln into the public eye.
ILLINOIS LEARNING STANDARDS:
14F.l.1 Describe events that changed U.S. political ideas
16B.l1 Causes/effects of political events in U.S. history
16D.l3 Actions of different institution before abolition
18B.J.5 Compare government/private agencies’ approaches to a social problem
OBJECTIVES: Students will be able:
1. Compare the positions of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas on the issue of slavery
2. To understand popular sovereignty
3. To understand why Lincoln won the election of 1860
4. To identify the political parties that emerged largely as a result of the rift over the issue of slavery.
5. Identify popular vote using a map of the U.S
Abraham Lincoln John Breckinridge Free-Soil Party Whigs
Stephen Douglas John Bell Democrats Popular Sovereignty
Debate Wilmot Proviso Republicans Electoral College
Why did Douglas support popular sovereignty?
What do the images of Douglas and Lincoln at the debate of 1858 reveal about each candidate?
In what way was Lincoln’s loss of the 1858 election considered a victory?
What were the view points of Douglas and Lincoln?
What is the difference between a primary and secondary resource?
Using the map of the “Election of 1860”, what does the numbers on the map indicate about the number of electoral votes for each state and how might the election have had a different result if the Democratic Party had not split?
Structured reading and note taking, chapter 10 section III
Mapping Activity: Student fill in blank map “Mapping the Debates Activities” and then create a timeline of debate activities
Guided Questioning: Why did Lincoln win the election of 1860?
Students will take a field trip to the old Illinois State Capital building in Springfield, Illinois
Students will watch film: Life and Times of Abraham Lincoln
Students will create a political cartoon representing the election of 1860.
Student will complete Lincoln-Douglas questions worksheet
Daily Assessments—written and oral expression
Quests for Knowledge
Chapter 10: section 3 quiz
Venn Diagram—Lincoln/Douglas Debate
Read Chapter 10:3 and take notes as you read
Complete Lincoln/Douglas Debate Map
MATERIALS, SUPPLIES, AND EQUIPMENT NEEDED:
DVD – Bringing History Alive
Computer – Internet Access
Transparencies – Note taking skills builder Venn diagram,
Lincoln-Douglas Debate Venn diagram hand-out
Lincoln/Douglas Debate Question Worksheets
Mapping the Lincoln/Douglas Debate Map
Student Textbook/Teacher’s Edition – United States History
Chapter 10:3 Quiz
Students will need to be assessed formally through section III quiz
Students will present to class the BoRB and explain how the images represent the topic
Students will complete Venn diagram
Students will write a written reflection about what they learned in class from class discussion
N.E.H. Landmark Institute-Lincoln
Title: Primary Source Choral Reading Poem
Class: 10th Grade U.S. History
Objective: To analyze primary source documents by accessing, processing, and communicating the document
Time: One class period
Individual student copies of selected excerpts from Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address ( For high school students not to exceed 250 words in length);
Three strips of blank paper (4 inches x ¾ inches) per student;
Two pieces of blank letter-size paper per group;
Markers of colored pencils per group ( optional)
1. The teacher will provide each student with a copy of the primary excerpt and three pieces of blank paper strips;
2. The teacher will direct the students to read the excerpt chorally ( out loud) and will direct the students to read each line as “all boys”, “all girls”, or “all together” as decided by the teacher on his or her master excerpt;
3. The students will write on each strip of paper individual phrases that moved them or were important to the student as they read and heard the document;
4. Students will divided into groups of four;
5. Students organize all twelve strips of paper into a free-verse poem, using all the verses exactly as they are written with no additions or deletions;
6. The students will transfer the twelve lines onto a separate blank piece of paper and read the poem to their group;
7. The students will then give the poem a title and each student signs their name to the poem;
8. The students may decorate their poem ( optional);
9. The students select a group member to read the poem to the class;
10. Finished poems are then posted on the “Wall of Fame”
The teacher will lead a discussion as to the differing interpretations of the poems based on a variety of factors, including themes, poetic construction, word usage, phraseology, etc.