National Endowment for the Humanities Faculty Humanities Workshops Grant
Premodern Humanisms, Modern Sciences, and the Posthuman Humanities
Submitted: September, 2007
Figure 1. The Smorkin' Labbit (KidRobot)
The proposed workshop series, “Premodern Humanisms, Modern Sciences, and the Posthuman Humanities,” is designed to allow faculty at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and the College of Charleston to collaborate on the development of team-taught interdisciplinary courses that would emphasize productive and mutually sustaining alliances between the premodern humanities, contemporary cultural studies, and the sciences that are at the forefront of changing how we conceptualize the human being. By bringing together prominent artists, scientists, and humanities scholars who combine humanistic and scientific approaches in their work with core faculty groups from the humanities and sciences, the proposed workshop series provides an intensive course of study and dialogue that is unprecedented on both campuses. Because both Southern Illinois and Charleston are either developing or have recently launched new programs in first-year interdisciplinary studies (the First-Year Experience program at Charleston and the New Freshman Seminar program at Southern Illinois, respectively), the time is propitious for these workshops. Additionally, SIUE recently completed a three-year review of its general education curriculum, BRIDGE (Baccalaureate Reform through Integrated Design of General Education), one of the outcomes of which was a decision to build on the University’s already-existing commitment to interdisciplinary courses in which two teachers are always present together in the classroom, thereby maximizing the potential for reciprocal scholarship, learning, and teaching.
In his book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, the biologist E.O. Wilson argues that “[e]very college student should be able to answer the following question: What is the relation between science and the humanities, and how is it important for human welfare?” Wilson also asserts that, without science, the “substantive base” of the “wisdom” of any knowledge discipline “is fragmented and lopsided.” While some in the humanities might bristle at Wilson’s argument, a more constructive counter-question might be posed: How might science be enriched by the consideration of humanistic questions that may not be easily answered by science’s privileged “natural laws”? Furthermore, how might the humanities be well-disposed to demonstrate that they are not just the repository and conservators of old ideas, but can also, in the words of Katherine Hayles, “produce knowledge” that is “worthwhile and consequential, and that . . . moves in complex ways and synchrony with new scientific knowledge.” It is one of the primary objectives of this workshop to supplement Hayles’s assertion by showing that the ancient past is likewise not an intellectual dead zone, but rather is continually productive of new insights that could benefit philosophical and more scientific questions about being and embodiment, self and identity, singularity and complexity, creativity, networks and autonomous agents, and the like.
The proposed workshops are designed to accomplish five primary goals: 1) to provide an intensive reading, teaching, and discussion program in premodern humanities studies, cultural theory, and modern sciences relative to the question of what it means to be human, in order to collectively explore with our scientist colleagues the helpful contributions that the humanities might still make to contemporary understandings of self and society in the so-called “brave new world”; 2) to create a synergistic learning node with the three-year Initiative of the National Humanities Center on “Autonomy, Singularity, Creativity,” from which Initiative we have culled three of our guest workshop presenters; 3) to “grow” a more robustly cross-disciplinary premodern humanities curricula; 4) to encourage the development of a more humanistic public science; and 5) to assist faculty in creating new and dynamic interdisciplinary courses that would showcase productive convergences between the premodern humanities and modern sciences and also contribute to the vigor of the newly founded first-year interdisciplinary programs on both campuses.
The proposed workshop series is intended to be both an intensive learning program as well as a lever for long-term curricular reform aimed at strengthening premodern humanities studies; therefore, in addition to developing actual new courses, we also plan to organize a mini-symposium on each campus during the fall 2009 semester in order to disseminate to the larger faculty and students at our respective institutions some of the insights into interdisciplinarity we gained from the workshops, and to also raise questions with our larger faculty and students about the value of premodern studies within the modern humanities and about where we should head next with our curricular reforms.
The proposed workshop series, “Premodern Humanisms, Modern Sciences, and the Posthuman Humanities,” is designed to allow faculty at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) and the College of Charleston (CofC) to collaborate on the development of team-taught interdisciplinary courses that would emphasize productive and mutually sustaining alliances between the premodern humanities, cultural studies, and the sciences that are at the forefront of changing how we conceptualize the human being. By bringing together prominent humanities scholars who combine humanistic and scientific approaches in their work, an internationally exhibited “Internet anthropologist,” and one of the biologists who led the effort to sequence the genome of the chimpanzee genome with core faculty groups from the humanities and sciences, the proposed workshop series provides an intensive course of study and dialogue that is unprecedented on both campuses. As both of the Project Co-Directors, Eileen Joy (SIUE) and Myra Seaman (CofC), are scholars of medieval literature who have been involved together for three years now in an interdisciplinary premodern humanities project (see below), and because both of their respective institutions are either developing or have recently launched new programs in first-year interdisciplinary studies (the First-Year Experience program at CofC and the New Freshman Seminar program at SIUE, respectively), the time is propitious for these workshops. Additionally, SIUE recently completed a three-year review of its general education curriculum, BRIDGE (Baccalaureate Reform through Integrated Design of General Education), one of the outcomes of which was a decision to build on the University’s already-existing commitment to interdisciplinary courses in which two teachers are always present together in the classroom, thereby maximizing the potential for reciprocal scholarship, learning, and teaching within the model of integrated Learning Communities, a pedagogical model that is based on a social constructivist approach to learning: the belief that social interaction between the learner, teachers, and other students is a critical part of the learning process.
The idea for this workshop series was germinating already in the formation in 2004 of the BABEL Working Group (BABEL), a collective of scholars working in medieval studies founded by Eileen Joy, Myra Seaman, Betsy McCormick (Mount San Antonio College, Los Angeles), and Kimberly Bell (Sam Houston State University) to create new venues for bringing together scholars working in the humanities with researchers working in the social and more pure sciences for the purposes of creating new paradigms for humanistic study at the university level, and to also demonstrate the relevance of premodern studies to pressing contemporary issues and questions that have mainly been generated in cultural theory and the newer science disciplines such as genetics and robotics. BABEL has spent the past three years developing a long-term project, “Premodern to Modern Humanisms,” which has involved the sponsoring of conference sessions at regional, national, and international conferences, the publication of two volumes of edited essays, and future plans for regional and national symposia, scholarly retreats, and a journal. The real priority of this long-term project, however, has always been to effect a reform of university general education curricula that would reflect new and mutually productive alliances between the scientists, the cultural theorists who typically only study modern periods, and humanists working in premodern areas of study.
For a while now, there has been a longstanding set of debates among and between humanists and scientists over the future of humanistic studies and the future of the human. While these two groups don’t always agree, there has been some productive convergence between them, as well as proximity and overlap in their respective intellectual concerns. Scholars working in literary studies, for example, have been discussing how changes in writing and information technologies have affected the production, transmission, and reception of humanistic knowledge, while they have also wondered about the fate of literature and the arts in what has widely been heralded as a posthuman age. What, for instance, might be the role of the critical analysis of literature in helping readers to develop artistic or ethical selves when the very notion of a coherent self has been undermined? At the same time, recent discoveries in cognitive science, while often dismissing the notion that there is such a thing as a fully autonomous and singular human being, have also revealed the importance of narrative and metaphor-like structures in the brain. One very important sign of the convergence of the humanistic and more scientific disciplines can be witnessed in the three-year initiative launched by the National Humanities Center (NHC) in 2006, “Autonomy, Singularity, Creativity,” which seeks to gather prominent scientists and humanists together to study the “ways that advances in science are changing the limits of human life and therefore disturbing traditional understandings of what it means to be human.” We have secured three of the prominent humanities scholars involved in this initiative—Katherine Hayles, Martha Nussbaum, and Joseph Carroll—for our proposed workshop series as visiting guest presenters, and we have purposefully built many of our core workshop texts around the work of the humanists and scientists involved with this initiative (see Detailed Workplan below).
Regardless of the productive common interest, however, there are still areas of friction and tension between scientists and humanists that need to be addressed, especially in relation to what might be called the unique value of the humanities. In his book Consilience, the biologist E.O. Wilson argues that “[e]very college student should be able to answer the following question: What is the relation between science and the humanities, and how is it important for human welfare?” Wilson also asserts that, without science, the “substantive base” of the “wisdom” of any knowledge discipline “is fragmented and lopsided.” While some in the humanities might bristle at Wilson’s argument, a more constructive counter-question might be posed: How might science be enriched by the consideration of humanistic questions that may not be easily answered by science’s privileged “natural laws”? Furthermore, how might the humanities be well-disposed to demonstrate that they are not just the repository and conservators of old ideas, but can also, in the words of Hayles, “produce knowledge” that is “worthwhile and consequential, and that . . . moves in complex ways and synchrony with new scientific knowledge.” It is one of the primary objectives of this workshop to supplement Hayles’s assertion by also showing that the ancient past is likewise not an intellectual dead zone, but rather is continually productive of new insights that could benefit philosophical and more scientific questions about being and embodiment, self and identity, singularity and complexity, creativity, networks and autonomous agents, and the like.
Content and Design of the Project
The proposed workshops are designed to accomplish five primary goals: 1) To provide an intensive reading, teaching, and discussion program in the premodern humanities, cultural theory, and modern sciences relative to the question of what it means to be human, in order to collectively explore with our scientist colleagues the helpful contributions that the humanities might still make to contemporary understandings of self and society in the so-called “brave new world”; 2) to create a synergistic learning node with the three-year Initiative of the National Humanities Center; 3) to “grow” a more robustly cross-disciplinary premodern humanities curricula; 4) to encourage the development of a more humanistic public science; and 5) to assist faculty in creating new and dynamic interdisciplinary courses that would showcase productive convergences between the premodern humanities and modern sciences and also contribute to the vigor of the newly founded first-year interdisciplinary programs on both campuses.
All eight workshops, except for the last one, which is
reserved for a one-day retreat period of syllabus development and evaluation,
will be broadcast in part by live video feed (and also taped) so that the
two groups can share local and guest workshop presenters and also converse
with each other during the discussion period. Faculty on each campus who
could not commit to all eight workshops but who are interested in attending
one or some of them, will be invited to do so. We will also make an effort
to contact faculty, both within and close by to our institutions who could
not be made aware of this grant application before it was filed, but who
we believe would either benefit from one or more of the workshops or would
add something of value to one or more of the discussions.
The first seven workshops include primary source materials that have been culled from a wide variety of humanistic and scientific disciplines that have been grouped into seven primary subject areas:
1) Humanism In Modernity: Is Humanism Still Possible?
2) The Challenges to Humanism: The End of the Humanist Subject?
3) Aesthetics, Perspective, Reality, Affect: What Is the “Nature” of the Thing?
4) Humans, Computers, and Other Intelligent Technologies: Who, or What, Is Lighting Out for the Virtual Territory Ahead?
5) Flesh, Embodiment, Experience: What is this Body that Houses the Ghosts of Humanity?
6) Evolution, Biology, Zoontology: The Question of the Animal
7) Feeling Brains and the Arts of Cognition: Where Has the Mind Been, Where Is It Going?
The first two workshops serve as a kind of crash course, before guest presenters begin visiting with the faculty groups, in the fundamental debates between the humanists and the anti-humanists in both the traditional humanities and the more forward-looking sciences, and they will also showcase work by both humanities scholars and scientists that argues for the productive value of humanist arts and letters, even in a modernity which has supposedly left them behind. Subsequent workshops, as can be seen above, focus more narrowly on critical challenges that new sciences, information technologies, and new aesthetic and philosophical modes pose to the human subject of the liberal humanities. Certain local faculty will help to lead discussion and make presentations, and guest presenters will contribute their specialized expertise, and each workshop’s subject matter, and the choice of participants, guest speakers, and presentation topics has been specifically designed, regardless of the discipline being represented, to highlight questions that have always been a chief concern of the humanities.
As mentioned above, both Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (a mid-sized, state-supported Master’s granting university located just outside Saint Louis, Missouri) and the College of Charleston (a mid-sized, state-affiliated liberal arts college located in downtown Charleston, South Carolina) are in the process of developing and launching new first-year interdisciplinary studies programs (the New Freshman Seminar program and First-Year Experience, respectively—NFS and FYE hereafter) for which both institutions are seeking faculty to develop new courses that would showcase innovative and traditionally unrepresented convergences between the humanities and the sciences. One of the participants in the SIUE faculty group, Carl Springer, who is a classics scholar, is also an Associate Dean in SIUE’s College of Arts and Sciences where he directly oversees the NFS program, and therefore, his involvement in this workshop series represents a real commitment on the part of SIUE to help make these workshops successful in relation to general education course offerings where the disciplines of the humanities have their greatest opportunities to reach a larger and more varied audience.
While the FYE program at CofC will promote “linkages” and “multi-class communities” between two first-year courses (in, say, Biology and English) through a one-credit “synthesis seminar” led by a peer facilitator, and also through special “discussion” courses that can be designed by regular faculty to be interdisciplinary in focus, the NFS program at SIUE is already a required component in the General Education Program. It is important to note that SIUE also has a long-established program in upper-division, team-taught Interdisciplinary Studies courses (a program Dean Springer helped to found), which are required of all majors. One of the main objectives of the NFS program is to build upon the success of that program by introducing entering students to variously structured cross-disciplinary communities of students and faculty. One model calls for two faculty members from different fields to design a course around any subject matter that they believe will show a productive relation between their separate knowledge specializations, and then that course is “linked” to sections of a skills course (such as English101 or Biology101). These seminars can have anywhere from 50 to upwards of 200 students enrolled in them, and therefore provide an excellent platform for new humanities courses to reach large, mixed audiences. But courses like this can also be a daunting challenge for faculty who either have never co-taught such classes, or have not had the time needed to explore possibly fruitful cross-disciplinary approaches to their scholarship and teaching. Therefore the proposed workshop series has been expressly designed to address the separate yet mutual needs of each institution for extra support in the further development of faculty to create the types of courses that will better reflect the nature of how knowledge is currently navigated and produced both within and without the University proper.
Further, it is the particular wish of the two Project Co-Directors to ensure that premodern studies have a strong place in these curricular reforms, for although premodern studies have always been deeply interdisciplinary, in recent years, on a national level, they have become marginalized in many general education offerings. SIUE and CofC, by contrast, are fortunate to have strong support from their respective deans and other administrators for the further development of premodern studies, which they have demonstrated in their hiring practices and in their extremely strong enthusiasm for this grant proposal.
Staff and Visiting Participants
Eileen Joy, who is Assistant Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in English at SIUE, will serve as the Project Co-Director. She is a specialist in Old English literature and cultural studies and has published articles and book chapters on Beowulf and the ethics of hospitality, historical artifacts and cultural memory, eros and medieval saints’ lives, genocide in contemporary India and medieval catalogues of Eastern marvels, and the intellectual history of early modern bibliography. She is the co-editor of The Postmodern Beowulf (2007) and Cultural Studies of the Modern Middle Ages (2007). Myra Seaman, the other Project Co-Director, is Associate Professor of English at CofC. Her work on late medieval English manuscripts and literature has been published in Studies in Philology, Medieval Perspectives, and Fifteenth-Century Studies, among other venues. She also co-edited, with Joy, Cultural Studies of the Modern Middle Ages (2007), for which she contributed a co-authored chapter on King Arthur in medieval historiography and popular film, and also co-authored with Joy the Introduction, “Through A Glass, Darkly: Medieval Cultural Studies at the End of History.”
Visiting participants will be, in the order of their appearance in the workshop series, Jen Boyle (Hollins University), Jonathan Harris (Independent Artist), Katherine Hayles (Duke University), Thomas Laqueur (UC, Berkeley), Jarrett Glasscock (Washington University), Martha Nussbaum (University of Chicago), Maria Bachman (Coastal Carolina University), Mark Turner (Case Western Reserve University), and Joseph Carroll (University of Missouri, St. Louis). Boyle is Assistant Professor of English (with affiliations in Screenwriting and Film Studies, Women's Studies, and Dance) at Hollins, and was also the Carol J. Lederer Postdoctoral Fellow at the Pembroke Center at Brown University from 2006-07. She has published articles and book chapters on perspective technics and affect in the poetry of John Milton, becoming-animal and the Enlightenment, and technoculture and sexuality, and is currently at work on a book on the “anamorphic imaginary.” Harris is an artist and storyteller working primarily on the Internet. He studied computer science at Princeton University and was awarded a 2004 Fabrica Fellowship. The winner of two 2005 Webby Awards, Harris’s work has been featured by CNN, BBC, Reuters, NPR, USA Today, and Wired, has been exhibited at Le Centre Pompidou in Paris, and will be exhibited at MoMA in New York in February 2008. Hayles is the John Charles Hillis Professor of Literature at UCLA and is currently a Senior Fellow at the National Humanities Center. She has published over seventy book chapters and articles on contemporary literature and science, electronic textuality, and science fiction. She is the author of the award-winning How We Became Posthuman (1999) and My Mother Was A Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts (2005). Laqueur is the Helen Fawcett Distinguished Professor of History at Berkeley and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has published numerous articles and book chapters on the cultural histories of sex and gender and gave the Darwin Lecture at Cambridge University in 1999. He is the author of the highly acclaimed book Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (1990). Glasscock is a computational biologist and lead researcher at the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University’s School of Medicine who has been instrumental in helping to map the genome of the chimpanzee and macaque monkey. Nussbaum is the Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at Chicago, where she is a Member of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies and a Board Member of the Human Rights Program. She has published over 150 articles and book chapters, and her numerous book publications, many of them translated into multiple languages, include The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy (1986), Poetic Justice (1996), Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education (1997), Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions (2001), and Hiding From Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law (2004). Bachman is Associate Professor of English and Director of Interdisciplinary Studies at Coastal Carolina University and was named South Carolina Professor of the Year in 2006. She is the author of numerous articles on Victorian literature and culture as well as the editor of two editions of Wilkie Collins’s novels, Blind Love (Broadview, 2004) and The Woman in White (Broadview, 2006). She is currently working on a book project on Theory of Mind, evolutionary psychology, and the Victorian novel. Turner is Professor and Chair of Cognitive Science at Case Western is the author of many books and articles on the literary mind, including The Literary Mind: The Origins of Language and Thought (Oxford, 1996) and Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science (Princeton, 1991). Turner also recently co-authored, with Gilles Fauconnier, The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities (Basic Books, 2006). Carroll is Professor of English at Missouri and the author of numerous articles and book chapters on Victorian fiction, Darwinism, and sociobiological literary criticism. He has published an edition of Darwin’s On the Origin of the Species (Broadview, 2003) and is also the author of the books Evolution and Literary Theory (1995) and Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature, and Literature (2004).
Detailed Work Plan
Faculty Humanities Workshops:
Premodern Humanisms, Modern Sciences, and the Posthuman Humanities
[A note regarding workshop format: Each reading-intensive workshop outlined in this work plan will be structured into three divisions: 1) prepared presentations, by both local and visiting speakers; 2) group discussion between workshop members and any visiting speakers relative to core readings and presentations, to be directed by appointed discussion leaders; and 3) structured reflection on readings and presentations related to curricular development. We also plan to set aside the last scheduled workshop period in order for the two groups to separately share and develop more formal ideas for curricular development and new course collaborations, some of which will be submitted more formally to our respective curriculum directors and committees in the fall 2009 semester. During the lecture and group discussion period of each workshop, a live video feed will allow the workshop groups on both campuses—Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and the College of Charleston—to hear and converse with each other, and share knowledge; the reflection portion of the workshop will be conducted separately on each campus. Auxiliary texts are provided as suggested further reading for workshop participants and also represent a fairly comprehensive overview of the most significant work for the subject areas being addressed. A weblog will be created and maintained by Eileen Joy for the purposes of fostering and continuing discussion outside of the workshop sessions, and to also disseminate information about the workshops to the larger university and college communities and also to the general academic community outside of the two institutions. Once the workshops are completed, this weblog will be saved in order to create an archive of the events and discussions.]
Workshop 1 — Humanism in Modernity: Is Humanism Still Possible?
29 August 2008
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Michael E. Moore (Carolingian & Merovingian History, Southern Illinois University)
Carl Springer (Classics: Latin and Greek, Southern Illinois University)
Jason Coy (European Renaissance History, College of Charleston)
Noelle Ziegler-Carmichael (Classics: Latin and Greek, College of Charleston)
The purpose of this workshop will be to read together and explore, not the primary texts of classical to Enlightenment humanism, but the ways in which certain modern scholars have used and responded to those texts in relation to modern life and intellectual thought (of both humanistic and scientific varieties). Texts to be covered here will include those that provide historical overviews of traditional schools of humanism and some of the more fundamental challenges they have faced in the university (from both postmodern philosophy and science), but the main emphasis will be on texts that showcase arguments by modern humanities scholars and scientists for the continuing value of the humanist tradition—in literary, philosophical, and scientific studies—even in the face of compelling arguments against its relevance and validity.
Core Reading Texts:
Brockman, John, ed. The New Humanists: Science at the Edge. Sterling,
Flanagan, Owen J. The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a Material World. MIT Press, 2007.
Hadot, Pierre. Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995.
Nussbaum, Martha C. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Soper, Kate. Humanism and Anti-Humanism. Hutchinson, 1986.
Snow, C.P. The Two Cultures. New edition. Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Todorov, Tzvetan. Imperfect Garden: The Legacy of Humanism. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. University of Chicago Press,
Berlin, Isaiah. The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas. Knopf, 1991.
Bohm, David and David Peat. Science, Order, and Creativity. Routledge, 1989.
Bookchin, Murray. Re-enchanting Humanity: A Defense of the Human Spirit Against Antihumanism, Misanthropy, Mysticism, and Primitivism. Cassell, 1995.
Bullock, Alan. The Humanist Tradition in the West. Thames and Hudson, 1985.
Davies, Tony. Humanism. Routledge, 1996.
de Condorcet, Antoine-Nicolas. Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. Trans. June Barraclough. (1795) Weidenfield and Nicholson, 1955.
Finkielkraut, Alain. In The Name of Humanity. Trans. Judith Friedlander. Columbia University Press, 2000.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Vol. 3: The Care of the Self. Trans. Robert Hurley. Random House, 1986.
Frankl, Victor. The Unheard Cry for Meaning: Psychotherapy and Humanism. Simon and Schuster, 1978.
Gilman, Sander. The Fortunes of the Humanities: Thoughts for After the Year 2000. Stanford University Press, 2000.
Hadot, Pierre. The Veil of Isis: An Essay on the History of the Idea of Nature, trans. Michael Chase. Belknap Press, 2006.
- - - . What Is Ancient Philosophy? trans. Michael Chase. Belknap Press, 2004.
Haney, William S. and Peter Malekin, eds. Humanism and the Humanities in the Twenty-First Century. Bucknell University Press, 2001.
Heidegger, Martin. “Letter on Humanism.” In Martin Heidegger: Pathmarks, ed. W. McNeill. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Huxley, Jason. Essays of a Humanist. Penguin Books, 1964.
Kateb, George. The Inner Ocean: Individualism and Democratic Culture. Cornell University Press, 1992.
Lear, Jonathan. Aristotle: The Desire to Understand. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- - - . Open Minded: Working Out the Logic of the Soul. Harvard University Press, 1999.
Mandrou, Robert. From Humanism to Science, 1400-1700, trans. Brian Pearce. Penguin Books, 1979.
Manuel, Frank E. and Fritzie P. Manuel. Utopian Thought in the Western World. Harvard University Press, 1979.
Maslow, Abraham. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Viking Press, 1971.
- - - . The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. Harper & Row, 1966.
Nussbaum, Martha. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Harvard University Press, 1997.
- - - . Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life. Beacon Press, 1996.
- - - . The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. Princeton University Press, 1994.
Passmore, John. The Perfectability of Man. Duckworth, 1970.
Percy, Walker. The Message in a Bottle: How Queer Man Is, How Queer Language Is, and What One Has to Do with the Other. Farar, Straus and Giroux, 1975.
Porter, Roy, ed. Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present. Routledge, 1997.
Rorty, Richard. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton University Press, 1981.
Said, Edward. Humanism and Democratic Criticism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Existentialism and Humanism. Trans. Philip Mairet. Metheun, 1948.
Taylor, Charles. A Secular Age. Belknap Press, 2007.
- - - . Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity. Harvard University Press, 1992.
Workshop 2 — The Challenges to Humanism: The
End of the Humanist Subject?
26 September 2008
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Eileen Joy (Medieval Literature, Southern Illinois University)
Myra Seaman (Medieval Literature, College of Charleston)
The purpose of this workshop will be to gain a deeper understanding of some of the most important challenges—historical, philosophical, technological, and scientific—that have been posed to the humanist tradition, and by extension, to the liberal humanist subject. The core texts have been chosen to reflect the broad variety of the arguments against the idea of the uniqueness, superiority, and sanctity of the “human” mind, body, self, and world that have been launched from fields as disparate as evolutionary biology, cybernetics and computer science, postmodern philosophy, art and literature, history, cognitive science, and psychology.
Core Reading Texts:
Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution
Reveals a Universe Without Design. W.W. Norton, 1986.
Gray, John. Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals. Granta Books, 2002.
Feyeraband, Paul. Farewell to Reason. Verso, 1987.
Halliwell, Martin and Andy Mousley. Critical Humanisms: Humanist/Anti-Humanist Dialogues. Edinburgh University Press, 2003.
Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Pepperell, Robert. The Posthuman Condition: Consciousness Beyond the Brain. Intellect Books, 2003.
Pinker, Steven. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Penguin Books, 2003.
Adorno, Theodor. Minima Moralia: Reflections on a Damaged Life. Trans.
E.F.N. Jepchott. New Left Books, 1974.
Badmington, Neil, ed. Posthumanism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Blackham, H.J., ed. Objections to Humanism. Lippincott, 1963.
Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. Routledge, 1993.
- - - . Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge, 1989.
Carroll, John. Humanism: The Wreck of Western Culture. Fontana, 1993.
Chambers, Iain. Culture After Humanism: History, Culture, Subjectivity. Routledge, 2001.
Cooney, Brian. Posthumanity: Thinking Philosophically About the Future. Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
Derrida, Jacques. Dissemination. Trans. Barbara Johnson. University of Chiacgo Press, 1983.
- - - . Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.
Ehrenfeld, David. The Arrogance of Humanism. Oxford University Press, 1981.
Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. Vintage Books, 1973.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Hogarth Press, 1930.
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. Farar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.
Gergen, Kenneth. The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. Basic Books, 1991.
Halberstam, Judith and Ira Livingston, eds. Posthuman Bodies. Indiana University Press, 1995.
Haraway, Donna J. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. Free Association Books, 1991.
Hassan, Ihab. “Prometheus as Performer: Toward a Posthumanist Culture?” In Performance in Postmodern Culture. Ed. Michael Benamou and Charles Caramella. Coda Press, 1977.
Hughes, J. “Embracing Change With All Four Arms: A Post-Humanist Defense of Genetic Engineering.” Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6.4 (June 1996): 94-101.
Kurzweil, Ray. The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. Viking Press, 1999.
Lewis, C.S. The Abolition of Man. Macmillan, 1947.
Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Inhuman: Reflections on Time. Trans. Geoffrey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby. Polity Press, 1988.
- - - . The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. Simon & Schuster, 1985.
Moravec, Hans. Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Harvard University Press, 1989.
- - - . Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. Oxford University Press, 1999.
Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1993.
- - - . Orientalism. Pantheon Books, 1978.
Silver, Lee M. Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond In a Brave New World. Avon Books, 1997.
Stock, Gregory. Metaman: The Merging of Humans and Machines into a Global Superorganism. Simon & Schuster, 1993.
- - - . Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future. Houghton Mifflin, 2002.
“Technology and the Human Person.” Special Issue: The Hedgehog Review 4.3 (Fall 2002).
Workshop 3 — Aesthetics, Perspective, Reality, Affect: What
is the “Nature” of the Thing?
24 October 2008
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Valerie Vogrin (Creative Writing, Southern Illinois University)
Jack Glassman (Physics, Southern Illinois University)
Matthew Canepa (Art History: Mediterranean and Near East, Greece and Rome, College of Charleston)
John Bruns (Film Studies, College of Charleston)
Guest Workshop Presenters:
Jen Boyle (Early Modern Literature, with affiliations in Screenwriting and Film Studies, Dance, and Women’s Studies, Hollins University) @SIUE
Jonathan Harris (Computer Artist, New York City) @CofC
The purpose of this workshop will be to explore both traditional and more contemporary ideas about perspective (as a “technics” of mediating reality and various world-objects, especially art), primarily in relation to issues of embodiment, cognition, individual affect, and collective consciousness. Following the work of Jen Boyle, we will be especially interested in the “fault lines between metaphysics and instrumentalist understandings of technological mediation,” and also in the ways in which different perspective technics have supplied us with “satisfying phantasies of mapped and regulated subjects, objects, bodies, and territories.” Our core readings and presentations for this workshop will have an emphasis upon work on perspective in literature, the fine arts, cognitive science, philosophy of mind, psychology, bioinformatics, new media, and physics. Through the computer artworks of “Internet anthropologist” Jonathan Harris, we will also explore how, to paraphrase Harris, it might be possible to coax human emotion, through art, out of technology.
Core Reading/Viewing Texts:
Bohm, David. On Creativity. Routledge, 1998.
Boyle, Jen. The Anamorphic Imaginary: Perspective, Media, and Embodiment in Early Modern Literature and Technoscience. [book-in-progress]
Harris, Jonathan. We Feel Fine. http://www.wefeelfine.org/.
- - - . Universe. http://universe.daylife.com/.
Panofsky, Erwin. Perspective as Symbolic Form. (1927). Trans. Christopher S. Wood. Zone Books, 1993.
Stafford, Barbara Maria. Echo Objects: The Cognitive Work of Images. University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Turkle, Sherry, ed. Evocative Objects: Things We Think With. MIT Press, 2007.
Waldby, Cathy. The Visible Human Project: Informatic Bodies and Posthuman Medicine. Routledge, 2000.
Barber, Julian. The End of Time: The Next Revolution in Physics.
Oxford University Press, 2001.
Bender, Gretchen et al., eds. Cultures on the Brink: The Ideologies of Technology. New Press, 1998.
Bergson, Henri. Matter and Memory. Trans. N.M. Paul. Zone Books, 1989.
Bolter, Jay David and David Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. MIT Press, 1999.
Breton, Andre. What Is Surrealism? Selected Writings. Pluto Press, 1978.
Brooke-Rose, Christine. A Rhetoric of the Unreal: Studies in Narrative and Structure, Especially of the Fantastic. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Crary, Jonathan. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture. MIT Press, 2001.
Damisch, Hubert. The Origin of Perspective. Trans. John Goodman. MIT Press, 1993.
Deutsch, David. The Fabric of Reality: The Science of Parallel Universes and Its Implications. Penguin Books, 1998.
Greene, Brian. The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality. Knopf, 2004.
Grombich, E.H. Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. Phaidon, 1960.
- - - . The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. Phaidon, 1979.
Harrigan, Pat and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, eds. First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. MIT Press, 2004.
Hawking, Stephen. The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, 2001.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. State University of New York Press, 1996.
Hofstadter, Douglas and Daniel Dennett, eds. The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self & Soul. Basic Books, 2001.
Kittler, Firedrich. Grammaphone, Film, Typewriter. Trans. G. Winthrop-Young and M. Wutz. Stanford University Press, 1999.
Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. Heidegger, Art, and Politics: The Fiction of the Political. Trans. Chris Turner. Blackwell, 1990.
Levine, George, ed. Realism and Representation: Essays on the Problem of Realism in Relation to Science, Literature, and Culture. University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.
Liebniz, G.W. Monadaology. (1720) Trans. Robert Latta. Kessinger, 2007.
Lucretius. On the Nature of Things. Trans. M.F. Smith. Revised edition. Loeb Classical Library, 1924.
Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. MIT Press, 2002.
Massumi, Brian. Parables of the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Duke University Press, 2004.
Maturana, Humberto R. Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer, 1991.
McHale, Brian. Postmodernist Fiction. Routledge, 1987.
Mitchell, W.J.T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
- - - . Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation. New edition. University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Pavel, Thomas. Fictional Worlds. Harvard University Press, 1989.
Penny, Simon, ed. Critical Issues in Electronic Media. SUNY Series in Film History and Theory. SUNY Press, 1995.
Randall, Lisa. Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe’s Hidden Dimensions. Ecco Press, 2005.
Reynolds, Bryan. Transversal Enterprises in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries: Fugitive Explorations. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Rotman, Brian. Signifying Nothing: The Semiotics of Zero. Stanford University Press, 2003.
Scharff, Robert C. and Val Dusek, eds. Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition, An Anthology. Blackwell, 2003.
Shlain, Leonard. Art & Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time, and Light. William Morriw, 1991.
The Essential Spinoza: Ethics and Related Writings. Ed. Michael L. Morgan. Hackett Publishing, 2006.
Stiegler, Bernard. Technics and Time, Vol. 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Trans. R. Beardsworth and G. Collins. Stanford University Press, 1996.
Stewart, Susan. On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Wardrip-Fruin, Noah and Nick Montfort, eds. The New Media Reader. MIT Press, 2003.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 1999.
Workshop 4 — Humans, Computers, and Other Intelligent
Technologies: Who, or What, Is Lighting Out for the Virtual Territory Ahead?
21 November 2008
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Steve Weinberg (Computer Science/Robotics, Southern Illinois University)
Todd Grantham (Philosophy of Biology & Technology, College of Charleston)
Brian Scholtens (Biology, College of Charleston)
Guest Workshop Presenters:
Katherine Hayles (Literature and Science, UCLA) @CofC
The purpose of this workshop will be to interrogate computer scientist Hans Moravec’s argument that, in the words of Katherine Hayles, “human identity is essentially an informational pattern rather than embodied enaction.” Is it possible, in other words, to separate the human mind from the human body, and if so, how and to what ends? What are the possible individual and social benefits to be gained by such a scenario? The perils? Further, how do recent discoveries and experiments in robotics engineering, complexity and assemblage theory, virtual reality, computer science, nanotechnology, artificial life, informatics, and computational biology challenge our understanding of the traditional “liberal human subject” that has been the foundation of the humanities since at least the Enlightenment? Finally, and following the lead of Katherine Hayles, we will investigate whether or not it is possible to “become posthuman” by embracing the transformational possibilities of new information technologies while also recognizing “finitude as a condition of human being.”
Core Reading Texts:
Brooks, Rodney. Flesh and Machines: How Robots Will Change Us. Pantheon
N. Katherine Hayles, My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Johnson, Steven. Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software. Scribner, 2001.
Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking, 2005.
Lessig, Lawrence. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World. Random House, 2001.
Searle, John. Minds, Brains and Science. Harvard University Press, 1984.
Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything
Else and What It Means. Plume, 2003.
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser. University of Michigan Press, 1994.
Breazeal, Cynthia L. Designing Sociable Robots. MIT Press, 2002.
De Landa, Manuel. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. Continuum International Publishing, 2006.
Doyle, Richard. On Beyond Living: Rhetorical Transformations in the Life Sciences. Stanford University Press, 1997.
Drexler, Eric. Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. Oxford University Press, 1990.
Hayles, Katherine. Chaos Bound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Cornell University Press, 1990.
Hayles, N. Katherine, ed. Nanoculture: Implications of the New Technoscience. Intellect Books, 2004.
Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology. Harper & Row, 1977.
Ihde, Don. Bodies in Technology. University of Minnesota Press, 2001.
- - - . Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Indiana University Press, 1990.
Jameson, Frederic. Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. Verso Books, 2007.
Jones, Caroline A., ed. Sensorium: Embodied Experience, Technology, and Contemporary Art. MIT Press, 2006.
Latour, Bruno. Aramis, or The Love of Technology. Trans. Catherine Porter. Harvard University Press, 1996.
- - - . Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Lessig, Lawrence. Code: Version 2.0. Basic Books, 2006.
Lévy, Pierre. Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age. Plenum, 1998.
Levy, Steven. Artificial Life: A Report from the Frontier Where Computers Meet Biology. Pantheon Books, 1992.
Menzel, Peter and Faith D’Aluisio. Robosapiens: Evolution of a New Species. MIT Press, 2000.
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. Trans. Colin Smith. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962.
- - - . The Visible and the Invisible. Trans. Alphonso Lingis. Northwestern University Press, 1968.
Minsky, Marvin. The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind. Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Mitchell, William J. City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. MIT Press, 1995.
Moravec, Hans. Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Harvard University Press, 1990.
- - - . Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. Oxford University Press, 2000.
Munster, Anna. Materializing New Media: Embodiment in Information Aesthetics. Dartmouth College Press, 2006.
Nelkin, Dorothy and M. Susan Lindee. The DNA Mystique: The Gene as Cultural Icon. W.H. Freeman and Company, 1995.
Pacey, Arnold. Meaning in Technology. MIT Press, 1999.
Pagels, Heinz R. The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. Bantam Books, 1989.
Penley, Constance and Andrew Ross, eds. Technoculture. University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
Pepperell, Robert and Michael Punt. The Postdigital Membrane: Imagination, Technology, and Desire. Intellect Books, 2000.
Rheingold, Howard. Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Basic Books, 2003.
- - - . The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Addison-Wesley, 1993.
Robertson, George et al., eds. FutureNatural: Nature, Science, Culture. Routledge, 1996.
Robins, Kevin and Frank Webster. Time of the Technoculture: From the Information Society to the Virtual Life. Routledge, 1999.
Rutsky, R.L. High Techne: Art and Technology from the Machine Aesthetic to the Posthuman. University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Schrodinger, Erwin. What Is Life? Mind and Matter. New edition. Cambridge University Press, 1967.
Smith, Merritt Roe and Leo Marx. Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. MIT Press, 1994.
Steels, Luc and Rodney Brooks, eds. The Artificial Life Route to Artificial Intelligence: Building Embodied, Situated Agents. E. Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
Stone, Allucquére Roseanne. The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. MIT Press, 1995.
The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life. Ed. Jack B. Copeland. Oxford University Press, 2004.
Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. Simon & Schuster, 1995.
- - - . The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. Simon & Schuster, 1984.
Virilio, Paul. The Information Bomb. Trans. Chris Turner. Verso, 2000.
Weiner, Norbert. Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press, 1948.
- - - . The Human Uses of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society. De Capo, 1988.
Winner, Langdon. The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Workshop 5 — Flesh, Embodiment, Experience: What is this Body
that Houses the Ghosts of Humanity?
30 January 2009
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Nancy Ruff (Classics: Latin and Greek, Southern Illinois University)
Allison Thomason (Ancient Assyrian History, Southern Illinois University)
Steve Tamari (Modern Syrian History, Southern Illinois University)
Cynthia May (Psychology, College of Charleston)
Guest Workshop Presenters:
Thomas Laqueur (Cultural History, University of California, Berkeley) @SIUE
The purpose of this workshop will be to explore together how, in the words of medical anthropologist Margaret Lock, “the body is at once elusive and substantial,” and how, also, “individuals both have and are bodies.” Because medical anthropology and histories of the body, such as Thomas Laqueur’s Making Sex, have shown us that representations of the human body change through different times and spaces, parsing out the human body’s exterior forms and modes of interiority can be a difficult task, especially when the cognitive sciences are telling us that we are and always have been “all body” and that our traditional ideas of “mind” or “inner self” are just a wishful projection. And because current biomedical technologies allows us to create new combinations of “self” and “other,” the idea of possessing “my body” becomes complicated, leading to philosophical, psychological, social, and even legal problems related to issues of identity and personhood. The core texts for this workshop will focus on histories, sociologies, and anthropologies of the human body and human medicine, cognitive philosophy, and the ways in which the human body and its often attendant “human spirit” have been represented in different cultures—artistically, philosophically, religiously, legally, materially, and so on—and how these representations have affected who does, and does not, count as “human.”
Core Reading Texts:
Bynum, Caroline Walker. Metamorphosis and Identity. Zone Books, 2001.
Gilman, Sander. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Cornell University Press, 1985.
Johnson, Mark. The Meaning of the Body: Aesthetics of Human Understanding. University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Laqueur, Thomas. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press, 1990.
Lock, Margaret. Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. University of California Press, 2001.
Porter, Roy. Flesh in the Age of Reason: The Modern Foundations of Body and Soul. W.W. Norton, 2004.
Braidotti, Rosi. Metamorphoses: Towards a Materialist Theory of Becoming.
Polity Press, 2002.
Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. University of California Press, 1993.
Brown, Norman O. Love’s Body. Random House, 1966.
Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. Columbia University Press, 1988.
Bynum, Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. Zone Books, 1990.
- - - . Holy Feast and Holy Famine: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. University of California Press, 1987.
- - - . Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200-1336. Columbia University Press, 1995.
- - - . “Why All the Fuss About the Body? A Medievalist’s Perspective,” Critical Inquiry 22.1 (Autumn 1995): 1-33.
Cadden, Joan. The Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture. Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Coakley, Sarah, ed. Religion and the Body. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Medieval Identity Machines. University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
Crary, Jonathan and Sanford Kwinter, eds. Incorporations. Zone Books, 1992.
Csordas, Thomas J. Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self. Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Feher, Michael, Ramona Nadoff, and Nadia Tazi, eds. Fragments for a History of the Human Body. 3 volumes. Zone Books, 1989.
Deitch, Jeffrey. Post HUMAN. Cantz/Deste Foundation for Contemporary Art, 1992.
Delueze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Brian Massumi. University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
- - - . Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Viking, 1977.
Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Taboo and Pollution. Praeger, 1966.
Featherstone, Mike, Mike Hepworth, and Bryan S. Turner. The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. SAGE Publications, 1991.
Foucault, Michel. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Trans. A.M. Sheridan Smith. Pantheon Books, 1973.
- - - . Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. A.M. Sheridan Smith. Vintage Books, 1977.
- - - . The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction. Trans. Robert Hurley. Vintage Books, 1990.
- - - . The History of Sexuality: Vol. 2: The Uses of Pleasure. Trans, Robert Hurley. Vintage Books, 1990.
Frank, Arthur W. The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics. University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Gallagher, Catherine and Thomas Laqueur, eds. The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century. University of California Press, 1987.
Gilman, Sander. Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS. Cornell University Press, 1988.
- - - . Health and Illness: Images of Difference. Reaktion Books, 2004.
- - - . Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery. Princeton University Press, 1999.
Ginberg, Elaine, ed. Passing and the Fictions of Identity. Duke University Press, 1996.
Grosz, Elizabeth. Space, Time, and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies. Routledge, 1995.
- - - . Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Indiana University Press, 1994.
Hamalakis, Yannis, Mark Pluciennik, and Sarah Tarlow. Thinking Through the Body: Archaeologies of Corporality. Plenum Publishers, 2002.
Ingestad, Benedicte and Susan Reynolds, eds. Disability and Culture. University of California Press, 1995.
Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. Routledge, 1989.
Johnson, Mark. The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Jordanova, Ludmilla. Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries. University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
- - - . Nature Displayed: Gender, Science, and Medicine, 1760-1820: Essays. Longman, 1999.
Kimbrell, Andrew. The Human Body Shop: The Engineering and Marketing of Life. HarperCollins, 1993.
Kirby, Vicki. Telling Flesh: The Substance of the Corporeal. Routledge, 1997.
Kleinman, Arthur. The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing, and the Human Condition. Basic Books, 1989.
Kuriyama, Shigehisa. The Expressiveness of the Body and the Divergence of Greek and Chinese Medicine. Zone Books, 1999.
Law, Jane Marie, ed. Religious Reflections on the Human Body. Indiana University Press, 1995.
Lingis, Alphonso. Body Transformations: Evolutions and Atavisms in Culture. Routledge, 2005.
- - - . Foreign Bodies. Routledge, 1994.
Lock, Margaret and Judith Farquhar, eds. Beyond the Body Proper: Reading the Anthropology of Material Life. Duke University Press, 2007.
Meskell, Lynn. Object Worlds in Ancient Egypt: Material Biographies Past and Present. Berg Publishers, 2004.
Meskell, Lynn, ed. Archaeologies of Materiality. Blackwell, 2005.
Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Random House, 1992.
Partner, Nancy. “No Sex, No Gender,” Speculum 68 (1993): 419-443.
Porter, Roy. Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine. W.W. Norton, 2003.
- - - . The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. W.W. Norton, 1998.
Scarry, Elaine. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World. Oxford University Press, 1985.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. Commodifying Bodies. SAGE Publications, 2003.
- - - . Death Without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil. University of California Press, 1992.
Sharp, Lesley A. Bodies, Commodities, and Biotechnologies: Death, Mourning, and Scientific Desire in the Realm of Human Organ Transfer. Columbia University Press, 2006.
Shilling, Chris. The Body in Culture, Technology and Society. SAGE Publications, 2004.
- - - . The Body and Social Theory. 2nd edition. SAGE Publications, 2003.
- - - . Re-Forming the Body: Religion, Community and Modernity. SAGE Publications, 1997.
Simmel, Georg. On Individuality and Social Forms. Ed. Donald N. Levine. New edition. University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Synnott, Anthony. The Body Social: Symbolism, Self and Society. Routledge, 1993.
Turner, Bryan S. The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory. 2nd edition. SAGE Publications, 1996.
- - - . Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. Routledge, 1992.
Weiss, Gail, ed. Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. Routledge, 1999.
Zito, Angela and Tani E. Barlow. Body, Subject and Power in China. University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Workshop 6 — Evolution, Biology, Zoontology: The Question of
27 February 2009
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Eileen Joy (Medieval Literature and Cultural Studies, Southern Illinois University)
Agnes Ayme-Southgate (Genetic Biology, College of Charleston)
Guest Workshop Presenters:
Jarrett Glasscock (Computational Biology, Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine) @SIUE
Martha Nussbaum (Legal Philosophy, University of Chicago Law School) @SIUE
According to Martha Nussbaum, “Human beings have gone through many phases in understanding the complexity of animal lives and animal thinking,” while at the same time we have often held animals to be outside the periphery of our moral concern and obligation. Historically (primarily in Western culture), animal mind and nature have been opposed to human mind and nature, which have traditionally been viewed as “better” and “higher,” but recent discoveries in various of the sciences have called into question this hierarchical division. This workshop is designed to investigate, with the help of a computational biologist who has worked on mapping the genome of the chimpanzee and macaque monkey (Glasscock) and an ethical philosopher who has worked on animal cognition (Nussbaum), what animal biology, cognition, and behavior can teach us about human biology, cognition, and behavior. We will also explore the possible productive and coevolutionary alliances between animals and humans, and between science and humanism, in relation to issues of empathy and ethics. Core texts will cover approaches to “the question of the animal” from a variety of disciplines, including literary studies, cultural theory, philosophy, science theory, evolutionary psychology, genetics, behavioral neuroscience, and primatology.
Core Reading Texts:
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. 3rd edition. Oxford University
De Waal, Frans B.M. The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections of a Primatologist. Basic Books, 2001.
- - - . Our Inner Ape: A Leading Primatologist Explains Why We Are Who We Are. Riverhead, 2005.
Haraway, Donna J. When Species Meet. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
Hauser, Marc. Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think. Henry Holt, 2000.
Nussbaum, Martha. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Belknap Press, 2006.
Wolfe, Cary. Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory. University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Agamben, Giorgio. The Open: Man and Animal. Trans. Kevin Attell.
Stanford University Press, 2004.
Aristotle. De motu animalium. Text with Translation, Commentary, and Interpretive Essays by Martha C. Nussbaum. Princeton University Press, 1978.
Barash, David P. and Judith Eve Lipton. The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. W.H. Freeman, 2001.
Bateson, Gregory. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. New edition. University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Bekoff, Marc. The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy—and Why They Matter. New World Library, 2007.
- - - . Minding Animals: Awareness, Emotions, and Heart. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Calarco, Matthew and Peter Atterton, eds. Animal Philosophy: Essential Readings in Continental Thought. Continuum International Publishing, 2004.
Cavalieri, Paola and Peter Singer, eds. The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Coetzee, J.M. The Lives of Animals. Princeton University Press, 1999.
Creager, Angela H.N. and William C. Jordan, eds. The Animal-Human Boundary: Historical Perspectives. University of Rochester Press, 2002.
Dawkins, Marian Stamp. Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness. W.H. Freeman, 1993.
Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of the Species. Ed. Joseph Carroll. Broadview Press, 2003.
Datson, Lorraine and Gregg Mitman, eds. Thinking with Animals: New Perspectives on Anthropomorphism. Columbia University Press, 2005.
De Waal, Frans B.M. Chimpanzee Politics: Power & Sex Among Apes. HarperCollins, 1984.
- - - . Peacemaking Among Primates. Harvard University Press, 1990.
- - - . Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Princeton University Press, 2006.
De Waal, Frans B.M. and Peter L. Tyack, eds. Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies. Harvard University Press, 2000.
Diamond, Jared. The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Perennial, 1992.
Gilbert, Paul, ed. Compassion: Conceptualizations, Research and Use in Psychotherapy. Routledge, 2005.
Glendinnig, Simon. On Being With Others: Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Derrida. Routledge, 1998.
Goodall, Jane. In the Shadow of Man. Houghton Mifflin, 1971.
- - - . Through a Window. Soko Publications, 1990.
Griffin, Donald R. Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness. University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Fuss, Diana, ed. Human, All Too Human. Routledge, 1996.
Ham, Jennifer and Matthew Senior, eds. Animal Acts: Configuring the Human in Western History. Routledge, 1997.
Haraway, Donna J. The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People, and Significant Otherness. Prickly Paradigm Press, 2003.
- - - . Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature. Routledge, 1989.
Lewontin, Richard C. Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA. Harper Perennial, 1991.
- - - . The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Harvard University Press, 2000.
Lewontin, Richard C. and Richard Levins. Biology Under the Influence: Dialectical Essays on the Coevolution of Nature and Society. Monthly Review Press, 2007.
Linzey, Andrew and Dorothy Yamamoto, eds. Animals on the Agenda: Questions About Animals for Theology and Ethics. University of Illinois Press, 1998.
Lorenz, Konrad. King Solomon’s Ring: New Light on Animal Ways. Metheun & Co., 1952.
- - - . Man Meets Dog. Metheun & Co., 1954.
- - - . On Agression. Harcourt Brace, 1966.
Maturana, Humberto and Francesco Varela. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Trans. Robert Paolucci. Revised edition. Shambhala Press, 1992.
May, Larry, Friedman, Marilyn, and Clark, Andy, eds. Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science. MIT Press, 1996.
MacIntyre, Alasdair C. Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues. Open Court, 1999.
Moss, Cynthia. Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life on an Elephant Family. 2nd edition. University of Chicago, 2000.
Nagel, Thomas. “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?” Philosophical Review 83.4 (October 1974): 435-450.
Nussbaum, Martha. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Ridley, Matt. Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. Harper Perennial, 2006.
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for a Treatment of Our Animals. Avon Books, 1975.
Sober, Elliott and David Sloan Wilson. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Harvard University Press, 1998.
Sorabji, Richard. Animal Minds and Human Morals: The Origins of the Western Debate. Cornell University Press, 1993.
Taylor, Angus. Animals and Ethics: An Overview of the Philosophical Debate. Broadview Press, 2003.
Wilson, Edward O. The Diversity of Life. 2nd edition. W.W. Norton, 1999.
- - - . On Human Nature. Harvard University Press, 1978.
Wolfe, Cary, ed. Zoontologies: The Question of the Animal. University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
Wrangham, Richard W. and Dale Peterson. Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and the Everyday Life. Vintage Books, 1994.
Workshop 7 — Feeling Brains and the Arts of Cognition: where
has the mind been, where is it going?
27 March 2009
Local Workshop Presenters & Discussion Leaders:
Michael Skelly (Psychology, Southern Illinois University)
Douglas Simms (Germanic Studies & Indo-European Linguistics, Southern Illinois University)
Guest Workshop Presenters:
Maria K. Bachman (Victorian Literature & Cognitive Literary Studies, Coastal Carolina University) @CofC
Joseph Carroll (Victorian Literature & Sociobiological Literary Criticism, University of Missouri, St. Louis) @CofC
Mark Turner (Cognitive Science and Creativity, Case Western Reserve University) @SIUE
This workshop takes as its launching point neuroscientist Antonio Damasio’s argument, in his book Descartes’ Error, that “the body, as represented in the brain, may constitute the indispensable frame of reference for the neural processes that we experience as the mind,” and that “our very organism rather than some absolute external reality is used as the ground reference for . . . the ever-present sense of subjectivity that is part and parcel of our experiences.” Further, “our most refined thoughts and best actions, our greatest joys and deepest sorrows, use the body as a yardstick.” Our objective here will be to deepen our understanding of Damasio’s insight through a study of his work, as well as other work in the fields of cognitive science, neurobiology, evolutionary psychology, and philosophy of mind, such that we might be able to develop new ways of thinking around the mind-body split that has been so entrenched in Western thought. In order to build a bridge between scientific and more literary ways of thinking about the mind and its imaginative projections, we will also spend some time reading work in cognitive literary studies, in order to explore Mark Turner’s argument, expressed in his book The Literary Mind, that parable is “one of our keenest mental processes for constructing meaning,” and “to understand parable is to understand root capacities of the everyday mind.”
Core Reading Texts:
Carroll, Joseph. Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature, and Literature.
Damasio, Antonio. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Harcourt, 2003.
Hofstadter, Douglas. I Am a Strange Loop. Basic Books, 2007.
Pinker, Steven. How the Mind Works. W.W. Norton, 1997.
Ramachandran, V.S. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Imposter Poodles to Purple Numbers. Pearson Education, 2004.
Turner, Mark. The Literary Mind: The Origins of Thought and Language. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Barkow, Jerome H. et al., eds. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology
and the Generation of Culture. Oxford University Press, 1992.
Blackmore, Susan. The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press, 1999.
Blackmore, Susan, ed. Conversations on Consciousness: What the Best Minds Think about the Brain, Free Will, and What It Means to Be Human. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Bortolussi, Marisa and Peter Dixon. Psychonarratology: Foundations for the Empirical Study of Literary Response. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Churchland, Patricia Smith. Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind-Brain. MIT Press, 1986.
Churchland, Paul M. The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. New edition. MIT Press, 1996.
- - - . Neurophilosophy at Work. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Churchland, Paul M. and Patricia Smith Churchland. On the Contrary: Critical Essays, 1987-1997. New edition. MIT Press, 1999.
Clark, Andy. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Back Together Again. MIT Press, 1997.
Damasio, Antonio. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1994.
- - - . The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt, 1999.
Darwin, Charles. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York Philosophical Library, 1872.
Dennett, Daniel C. Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown & Co., 1991.
De Sousa, Ronald. The Rationality of Emotion. MIT Press, 1991.
Draaisma, Douwe. Metaphors of Memory: A History of Ideas about the Mind. Trans. Paul Vincent. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities. Basic Books, 2002.
Feagin, Susan. Reading With Feeling: The Aesthetics of Appreciation. Cornell University Press, 1996.
Flanagan, Owen J. Consciousness Reconsidered. MIT Press, 1992.
Forgas, Joseph P. ed. Feeling and Thinking: The Role of Affect in Social Cognition. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Hermann, David, ed. Narrative Theory and the Cognitive Sciences. CSLI Publications, 2003.
Hogan, Patrick Colm. Cognitive Science, Literature and the Arts. Routledge, 2003.
Kagan, Jerome. Unstable Ideas: Temperament, Cognition, and Self. Harvard University Press, 1989.
Keen, Suzanne. Empathy and the Novel. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Keenan, Julian. The Face in the Mirror: The Search for the Origins of Consciousness. Ecco Press, 2003.
Kövecses, Zoltán. Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and the Body in Human Feeling. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Lakoff, George. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. 2nd edition. University of Chicago Press, 1980.
- - - . Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books, 1999.
Lakoff, George and Mark Turner. More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. University of Chicago Press, 1989.
LeDoux, Joseph. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. Touchstone, 1998.
- - - . Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Viking Penguin, 2002.
Lodge, David. Consciousness and the Novel. Harvard University Press, 2002.
Oatley, Keith. Best Laid Schemes: The Psychology of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Palmer, Alan. Fictional Minds. University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
Penrose, Roger. The Large, the Small, and the Mind. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- - - . Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Ramachandran, V.S. and Sandra Blaskeslee. Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind. HarperCollins, 1998.
Richardson, Alan and Spolsky, Ellen. The Work of Fiction: Cognition, Culture, and Complexity. Ashgate, 2004.
Richardson, Alan and Francis F. Steen. Literature and the Cognitive Revolution. Special issue of Poetics Today 23.1 (Spring 2002).
Sacks, Oliver. An Anthropologist on Mars: Seven Paradoxical Tales. Vintage Books, 1996.
- - - . Awakenings. Summit Books, 1973.
- - - . The Island of the Colorblind. Random House, 1998.
- - - . The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales. Summit Books, 1985.
Searle, John R. Freedom and Neurobiology: Reflections on Free Will, Language, and Political Power. Columbia University Press, 2007.
- - - . Mind: A Brief Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2004.
- - - . The Rediscovery of the Mind. MIT Press, 1992.
Spolski, Ellen. Gaps in Nature: Literary Interpretation and the Modular Mind. State University of New York Press, 1993.
Terada, Rei. Feeling in Theory: Emotion after the “Death of the Subject.” Harvard University Press, 2001.
Turner, Mark. Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science. Princeton University Press, 1991.
Varela, Francesco J., Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. MIT Press, 1991.
Zunshine, Lisa. Why We Read Fiction: Theory of Mind and the Novel. Ohio State University Press, 2006.